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Research Proposal格式范文:报酬管理对就业保持的影响(2)

时间:2017-07-14 12:51来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
After develping Maslow`s theory, Alderfer (1972 cited in Streers, 2004, pp379-384) later on adapted Maslow`s hierarchy of need model to cover the just three needs such as existence, relatedness and gr
 
After develping Maslow`s theory, Alderfer (1972 cited in Streers, 2004, pp379-384) later on adapted Maslow`s hierarchy of need model to cover the just three needs such as existence, relatedness and growth. His theory is also known by ERG theory, which is the first three name of the first letter of the needs. According to his theory only existence needs to correspond to Maslow`s physiological and safety needs and relatedness needs refer actually to Maslow`s belongingness needs and Growth needs correspond to Malsow`s esteem and self-actualizaiton needs.
 
Based on Alderfer`s three needs with Maslow`s three needs which are, existence needs contains person`s physiological and physically related safety needs which include food need, shelter, and safe working conditions. A person`s need to interact with other people, receive public recognition, and feel secure around people is contains in Relatedness needs and need of growth consist of a person`s self-esteem by personal achievement as well as the concept of self-actualizaiton presented in Maslow`s model.
 
The second content theory of motivation has been developed by Murray (1938 cited in Streers, 2004, pp379-384), he also developed a theory of personality that was organized in terms of presses, motives, and needs as he has described a needs as a, potentiality or readiness to respond in a certain way under certain given circumastances. According to theories of personality based upon needs and motives suggetested that our personalities area reflection of behaviors controlled byneeds. While some needs are more deep seated, other needs are temporary and chaning in our nature. He defined two types of needs in the theory of personality such as primary needs, which is based upon biological demand such as the need for oxygen, food and water and secondary needs, which are generally psychological, such as the need for nurturing, independence, and achievement. In the psychological needs he included Ambition needs, Materialistic needs, Power needs, Affection needs, Information needs.
 
But later on McClelland (1961, 1971 cited in Streers, 2004, pp379-384) completely modified the theory of personality by ongoning the concept of hierarchy and focused instead on the motivational potency of an array of distinct and clearly defined needs, including achievement, affiliation, power, and autonomy. McClelland suggested that, individuals possess several often-competing needs at any given time that serve to motivate behavior when activated. Since he developed this model he tried to focused on the needs fo achievement which is defined as behavior directed toward competition with a standard of excellence and power which is defined as a need to have control over one`s environment. This concept contrasts with Maslow`s notion of a steady progression over the time up a hypothetical hierarchy as individuals grow and mature.
 
Personal achievement theories suggest that a person`s motivation and performance vary according to the strenths of one`s need for achievement, Kreitner (1998 cited in Ramlall, 2004)
 
Kreitner & Kenicki (1998) suggest that the some needs for achievement as mastering, manipulating, or organizing physical objects, human beings, or ideas.
 
The need theories for the affiliation proposed that people have the desire to spend time in social relationships and activities. Even if people with a high need for affiliation prefer to spend more time maintaining social relationships, joining groups and wanting to be appreciated rather than spending time in workplace those who is not envolved in the important role in organization. But this individual high need not for managers and leaders of organization as they have a challenging time making difficult dicisions without worrying about being disliked. On the other hand, power has a important role, as a manager power has to be positively influence on other to achieve their desire. McClelland suggested that manager should possess high power with a lower need for affiliation, Kreitner (1998 cited in Ramlall, 2004)
 
Since Herzberg developed the two factore theory, which is also know as Herzberg hygiene factors theory, suggested that those factors involved in job satisfaction or dissatisfaction are different then they are not simply opposites, and therefore the opposite of job satisfaction, rather then being job dissatisfaction; similarly, the opposite of job dissatisfaction in not job satisfaction but no job dissatisfaction. On the other hand, in the job context, factors that contribute to growth – motivators – are intrinsic to the job, and include achievement, recognition, the work itself, or opportunities for advancement. Factors that contribute to dissatisfaction – hygiene factors - are extrinsic to the job and include salary, working conditions, supervision, interpersonal relationships, or job security Herzberg (1959 cited in Jeans, 2009)
 
According to his theory, factors that were intrinsic to the content of the jobs are referred as motivators and included such variables as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. In contrast, the factors that were involved with dissatisfaction are referred as bygiene, Herzberg (1959 cited in in Ramlall, 2004)
 
Hackman and Oldham (1980, cited in Hall, 2009) developed a comprehensive model of job enrichment featuring which included five core job dimensions succh as skill variety; task identity; task significance; autonomy and feedback.
 
Smith (2001) also saw job satisfaction as “an effective response of the worker to his job. It was viewed as a result or consequence of the worker's experience on the job in relation to his own values, that was to what he wanted or expected from it. Satisfaction can be viewed as similar to pleasure''.
 
The source of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction varies from person to person. Sources thought to be important for employees include the challenge of the job, the degree of interest the worker holds for the job, the extent of required physical activity, working conditions, reward available from the organization, the nature of co-workers and so on. Brown (2008).
 
Research question and objectives
Aims and Objectives
The major aim of the study is to examine the impact of reward management on employee retention in the private education sector especially private colleges in the UK. The major objectives of the research are to:
 
Identify the role of reward management (RM) in employee retention
Investigate the impact of Reward Management (RM) on employee retention within private education sector in the UK
Identify the antecedents of employees retention
Research Questions
The sheer volume of studies suggests that effective reward management has a profound effect on employee retention. However, thre is less evidence and research on its implication and effect in businesses within private education sector such as Private Colleges in UK perspective. This proposed study intends to address this need and thus the study aims to provide answer to the following key questions:
 
What are the key drivers of employer choice amongst employees of private Colleges and how can such sector build strong and lasting loyalty amongst their employees which will lead to employee retention?
What makes an employee loyal to a particular organization?
What are the antecedents of employee retention and how reward management affect employee retention?
What are the main factors associated with employee dissatisfaction and the role of reward management in employee retention.
Methodology
Research Methodology:
In order to meet the researcher`s information needs and achieve the research objectives two types of research methodology will be combined-Primary and Secondary. Due to budget and time constraints the type of methodology to be employed is restricted.
 
Secondary Research:
The primary stage will consist of secondary analysis of already existing data.Literature on reward management and its relation to employee relation and other relevant key literature will be reviewed in order to investigate the underlying relationship between reward management and employee retention. The sources of secondary research are mainly academic source
 
(Journal article, conference proceedings, working papers and relevant books etc.), company source( as the research is based on one particular organisation, information on organisation will be gathered through organisational literature, brochure, website etc), and also some contemporary sources. The secondary data will be used to get basic understanding of the problem and make frame of reference. Although there are some problems with the secondary research such as compatibility and trustworthiness,cautionary attention to be given by the researcher. Information to be taken from internet and other sources will be dealt with in a very conscious manner.
 
Primary Research:
In terms of primary researchdata will be collected through face to face interview and indepth interview. The research will be based on selecting an organisation which is London College of Management Studies, my work place, located in Harrow, London.
 
* In depth –open ended interview: This is based upon a widespread review of literature. 4 senior member of management and academic board will be selected from London College of Management Studies. In depth interview will focus on the following areas:


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