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Proposal怎么写?附精品Proposal范文5例

论文价格: 免费 时间:2020-02-24 13:16:04 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
想要申请研究生和博士生项目,以及即将开展毕业论文的同学们,不论你们是什么专业和领域,都会面临一个让你压力山大,苦思冥想的挑战,就是研究计划(Research Proposal)。一份条理清晰,针对性强的Proposal会让你的导师了解你们有共同的兴趣方向,并有意愿让你加入研究项目组,也会对你的申请有直接的帮助。
首先,我们要明确两个写Research Proposal的目的,一是明确研究问题的必要性,二是提出研究的实用方法。Research Proposal应该包含大量的文献综述,从而为你的观点提供有说服力的证据,证明你计划的研究是有必要的。除了提供基本原理外,还需要根据专业或学术领域的要求进行研究的详细方法,并说明了预期的结果和/或从研究​​完成中获得的收益。
针对不同的专业和内容,Proposal有所不同。本文主要讨论普遍的Research Proposal的大纲和写作思路,并提供五个实际的案例。
 
开始阶段
仔细阅读作业要求,如果有不清晰的地方,向你的教授询问是否有特定的写作要求。
 
回答以下问题:
What do I want to study?
Why is the topic important?
How is it significant within the subject areas covered in my class?
What problems will it help solve?
How does it build upon [and hopefully go beyond] research already conducted on the topic?
What exactly should I plan to do, and can I get it done in the time available?
 
In general, a compelling research proposal should document your knowledge of the topic and demonstrate your enthusiasm for conducting the study. Approach it with the intention of leaving your readers feeling like, "Wow, that's an exciting idea and I can’t wait to see how it turns out!"
 
你的Proposal大致应该包含以下部分:
I.  Introduction引言
In the real world of higher education, a research proposal is most often written by scholars seeking grant funding for a research project or it's the first step in getting approval to write a doctoral dissertation. Even if this is just a course assignment, treat your introduction as the initial pitch of an idea or a thorough examination of the significance of a research problem. After reading the introduction, your readers should not only have an understanding of what you want to do, but they should also be able to gain a sense of your passion for the topic and to be excited about the study's possible outcomes. Note that most proposals do not include an abstract [summary] before the introduction.
Think about your introduction as a narrative written in two to four paragraphs that succinctly answers the following four questions:
  1. What is the central research problem?
  2. What is the topic of study related to that research problem?
  3. What methods should be used to analyze the research problem?
  4. Why is this important research, what is its significance, and why should someone reading the proposal care about the outcomes of the proposed study?
 II.  Background and Significance背景和重要性
This is where you explain the context of your proposal and describe in detail why it's important. It can be melded into your introduction or you can create a separate section to help with the organization and narrative flow of your proposal. Approach writing this section with the thought that you can’t assume your readers will know as much about the research problem as you do. Note that this section is not an essay going over everything you have learned about the topic; instead, you must choose what is most relevant in explaining the aims of your research.
To that end, while there are no prescribed rules for establishing the significance of your proposed study, you should attempt to address some or all of the following:
  • State the research problem and give a more detailed explanation about the purpose of the study than what you stated in the introduction. This is particularly important if the problem is complex or multifaceted.
  • Present the rationale of your proposed study and clearly indicate why it is worth doing; be sure to answer the "So What? question [i.e., why should anyone care].
  • Describe the major issues or problems to be addressed by your research. This can be in the form of questions to be addressed. Be sure to note how your proposed study builds on previous assumptions about the research problem.
  • Explain the methods you plan to use for conducting your research. Clearly identify the key sources you intend to use and explain how they will contribute to your analysis of the topic.
  • Describe the boundaries of your proposed research in order to provide a clear focus. Where appropriate, state not only what you plan to study, but what aspects of the research problem will be excluded from the study.
  • If necessary, provide definitions of key concepts or terms.
 
III.  Literature Review文献综述
Connected to the background and significance of your study is a section of your proposal devoted to a more deliberate review and synthesis of prior studies related to the research problem under investigation. The purpose here is to place your project within the larger whole of what is currently being explored, while demonstrating to your readers that your work is original and innovative. Think about what questions other researchers have asked, what methods they have used, and what is your understanding of their findings and, when stated, their recommendations.
Since a literature review is information dense, it is crucial that this section is intelligently structured to enable a reader to grasp the key arguments underpinning your proposed study in relation to that of other researchers. A good strategy is to break the literature into "conceptual categories" [themes] rather than systematically or chronologically describing groups of materials one at a time. Note that conceptual categories generally reveal themselves after you have read most of the pertinent literature on your topic so adding new categories is an on-going process of discovery as you review more studies. How do you know you've covered the key conceptual categories underlying the research literature? Generally, you can have confidence that all of the significant conceptual categories have been identified if you start to see repetition in the conclusions or recommendations that are being made.
NOTE: Do not shy away from challenging the conclusions made in prior research as a basis for supporting the need for your proposal. Assess what you believe is missing and state how previous research has failed to adequately examine the issue that your study addresses.
To help frame your proposal's review of prior research, consider the "five C’s" of writing a literature review:
  1. Cite, so as to keep the primary focus on the literature pertinent to your research problem.
  2. Compare the various arguments, theories, methodologies, and findings expressed in the literature: what do the authors agree on? Who applies similar approaches to analyzing the research problem?
  3. Contrast the various arguments, themes, methodologies, approaches, and controversies expressed in the literature: describe what are the major areas of disagreement, controversy, or debate among scholars?
  4. Critique the literature: Which arguments are more persuasive, and why? Which approaches, findings, and methodologies seem most reliable, valid, or appropriate, and why? Pay attention to the verbs you use to describe what an author says/does [e.g., asserts, demonstrates, argues, etc.].
  5. Connect the literature to your own area of research and investigation: how does your own work draw upon, depart from, synthesize, or add a new perspective to what has been said in the literature?
IV.  Research Design and Methods 研究设计和方法
This section must be well-written and logically organized because you are not actually doing the research, yet, your reader must have confidence that it is worth pursuing. The reader will never have a study outcome from which to evaluate whether your methodological choices were the correct ones. Thus, the objective here is to convince the reader that your overall research design and proposed methods of analysis will correctly address the problem and that the methods will provide the means to effectively interpret the potential results. Your design and methods should be unmistakably tied to the specific aims of your study.
Describe the overall research design by building upon and drawing examples from your review of the literature. Consider not only methods that other researchers have used but methods of data gathering that have not been used but perhaps could be. Be specific about the methodological approaches you plan to undertake to obtain information, the techniques you would use to analyze the data, and the tests of external validity to which you commit yourself [i.e., the trustworthiness by which you can generalize from your study to other people, places, events, and/or periods of time].#p#分页标题#e#
When describing the methods you will use, be sure to cover the following:
  • Specify the research process you will undertake and the way you will interpret the results obtained in relation to the research problem. Don't just describe what you intend to achieve from applying the methods you choose, but state how you will spend your time while applying these methods [e.g., coding text from interviews to find statements about the need to change school curriculum; running a regression to determine if there is a relationship between campaign advertising on social media sites and election outcomes in Europe].
  • Keep in mind that the methodology is not just a list of tasks; it is an argument as to why these tasks add up to the best way to investigate the research problem. This is an important point because the mere listing of tasks to be performed does not demonstrate that, collectively, they effectively address the research problem. Be sure you clearly explain this.
  • Anticipate and acknowledge any potential barriers and pitfalls in carrying out your research design and explain how you plan to address them. No method is perfect so you need to describe where you believe challenges may exist in obtaining data or accessing information. It's always better to acknowledge this than to have it brought up by your professor
 
V.  Preliminary Suppositions and Implications初步假设和意义
Just because you don't have to actually conduct the study and analyze the results, doesn't mean you can skip talking about the analytical process and potential implications. The purpose of this section is to argue how and in what ways you believe your research will refine, revise, or extend existing knowledge in the subject area under investigation. Depending on the aims and objectives of your study, describe how the anticipated results will impact future scholarly research, theory, practice, forms of interventions, or policymaking. Note that such discussions may have either substantive [a potential new policy], theoretical [a potential new understanding], or methodological [a potential new way of analyzing] significance.
 
When thinking about the potential implications of your study, ask the following questions:
  • What might the results mean in regards to challenging the theoretical framework and underlying assumptions that support the study?
  • What suggestions for subsequent research could arise from the potential outcomes of the study?
  • What will the results mean to practitioners in the natural settings of their workplace?
  • Will the results influence programs, methods, and/or forms of intervention?
  • How might the results contribute to the solution of social, economic, or other types of problems?
  • Will the results influence policy decisions?
  • In what way do individuals or groups benefit should your study be pursued?
  • What will be improved or changed as a result of the proposed research?
  • How will the results of the study be implemented and what innovations or transformative insights could emerge from the process of implementation?
NOTE:  This section should not delve into idle speculation, opinion, or be formulated on the basis of unclear evidence. The purpose is to reflect upon gaps or understudied areas of the current literature and describe how your proposed research contributes to a new understanding of the research problem should the study be implemented as designed.

VI.  Conclusion总结
The conclusion reiterates the importance or significance of your proposal and provides a brief summary of the entire study. This section should be only one or two paragraphs long, emphasizing why the research problem is worth investigating, why your research study is unique, and how it should advance existing knowledge.
Someone reading this section should come away with an understanding of:
  • Why the study should be done,
  • The specific purpose of the study and the research questions it attempts to answer,
  • The decision to why the research design and methods used where chosen over other options,
  • The potential implications emerging from your proposed study of the research problem, and
  • A sense of how your study fits within the broader scholarship about the research problem.
 
VII.  Citations索引
As with any scholarly research paper, you must cite the sources you used. In a standard research proposal, this section can take two forms, so consult with your professor about which one is preferred.
  1. References -- lists only the literature that you actually used or cited in your proposal.
  2. Bibliography -- lists everything you used or cited in your proposal, with additional citations to any key sources relevant to understanding the research problem.
 
In either case, this section should testify to the fact that you did enough preparatory work to ensure the project will complement and not just duplicate the efforts of other researchers. Start a new page and use the heading "References" or "Bibliography" centered at the top of the page. Cited works should always use a standard format that follows the writing style advised by the discipline of your course e.g., education=APA; history=Chicago] or that is preferred by your professor. This section normally does not count towards the total page length of your research proposal.
Proposal
以下范例仅供参考:
Research Proposal
1.  Research Topic Introduction
            (a)  The research topic I have chosen for Writing 123 is focused on our mental health systemwhat services are provided in Bend, and what services are needed.  The research question I wish to answer is:  Homelessness among the chronically mentally ill is a community problem in Bend as well as elsewhere in the United States:  As a community, how can we address this problem?  I have chosen this topic partly as a result of my interest developed from my psychology professor last term.  She mentioned in class that there are some chronically mentally ill (schizophrenic) people who live in Juniper Park.  Additionally, I recently viewed a program on 60 Minutes which profiled a community in Geel, Belgium, that has a unique way to care for the mentally ill in their community.  I was intrigued by the total community commitment and support of the mentally ill.  In Geel, Belgium, you never see someone sleeping on the street.  I wanted to further investigate their system for caring for the mentally ill and see if their methods could be duplicated in other communities, such as in the United States.  If some of the methods used in Geel, Belgium, could be used elsewhere, as in Bend, this might have significant implications for the services we can provide in Bend.  I feel as a community, we have a responsibility to care for those who are unable to care for themselves.  I do not feel it is acceptable to have the chronically mentally ill living in our community parks or on the streets. I think some of our social problems are just accepted as part of living in a community and perhaps they are not addressed as they should be.  In my research, I discovered a model program that was started in Long Beach, California, as a result of the frustration and dissatisfaction of family members of mentally ill, as well as professionals and business people who had an interest in improving the mental health system. As a result, the Village Integrated Service Agency in Long Beach, California, has received a growing amount of attention and commendation as a model mental health program.  It incorporates a number of innovative approaches that may be valuable in effecting widespread system change.
            (b)  I believe this is a very appropriate topic for Writing 123.  It fits in with the courses I have studied and presents a very real problem in Bend that can be addressed in a research topic.  Until I viewed the program that focused on Geel, Belgium, and their unique methods for providing for the mentally ill, I had not considered other community options for addressing the problem of homelessness of the mentally ill.  It is a very effective method to view problems from other perspectives to arrive at real solutions that may be helpful and appropriate in our community in dealing with this social problem.
            (c)  I intend to use the American Psychological Association (APA) documentation system for this research topic.  When I consulted our textbook regarding citation formats, I learned that “The APA form is a variant of the author-date system of citing sources, used in the field of psychology and often in other behavioral sciences” (Hubbuch, 2002).
2. Research Question and Working Hypothesis#p#分页标题#e#
            (a) My research topic is:  Homelessness among the chronically mentally ill is a community problem in Bend as well as elsewhere in the United States:  As a community, how can we address this problem?
            (b) Working hypothesis:  This is a problem not only in Bend, but in large, economically sound communities, as well.  It is a problem that must be addressed as a community to have a working, caring system to provide for the mentally ill who are homeless.  This involves having a community home to provide for these homeless individuals, having a foster care system that supplements a community home and having  people receiving these services be treated with “respect, dignity and without labeling or discrimination of any type” (CareLink, 2002). 
3.  Research Strategy Description
            (a) What do I need to discover in my research?
Assumptions
            In the US you see many homeless people.  In Bend we have homelessness.  My psychology professor stated there are probably five or six schizophrenic people living in Juniper Park.  Our mental health system fails to care for the chronically mentally ill.
Research Questions
            Is our mental health system adequate?  What services are provided in Bend?  Why are the chronically mentally ill homeless?  What services are needed in Bend?
Assumptions
            There is a different approach for the care of the mentally ill in Geel, Belgium.  You never see a person sleeping on the street there.  They seem to have a successful way to care for the mentally ill.
Research Questions
            How do the people in Geel, Belgium care for the mentally ill?  What accounts for the success of their methods?  Would this model be transferable to other places, i.e., cities in the United States?  Bend?  If not, why not?
Assumptions
            The Village Integrated Service Agency in Long Beach, California, has received a growing amount of attention and commendation as a model mental health program.  It incorporates a number of innovative approaches that may be valuable in effecting widespread system change.  Dr. Mark Ragins, who is involved with the Village Integrated Service Agency, visited Geel, Belgium, and observed their system of care for the mentally ill in his process of gaining a worldwide perspective of psychiatric rehabilitation.
Research Questions
            What is the Village Integrated Service Agency?  How did it get started and why?  What is it doing differently and what is successful, not successful?  Would this approach work elsewhere?  In Bend?
            (b)  Where will I look for answers?
            I used Ebsco Host database for a web search of key terms:  mental health; mental illness; psychiatric rehabilitation, Geel, Belgium.  I have also searched Google.com.  I have found useful journal articles relating to my topic, including an article in the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, Summer 2000, outlining and describing the Denver approach which combines “the best rehabilitation models and influences into one system of rehabilitation services.”  Additionally, I discovered information about The Village Integrated Service Agency in Long Beach, California, which incorporates a number of innovative approaches in care for the mentally ill.
            I asked the librarian at the COCC library for sources of information about services provided in Bend.  She directed me to the appropriate website and the new Deschutes County Mental Health office located at 2577 NE Courtney in Bend to obtain information on what services are currently available in Bend.  I visited the new office in Bend and obtained a pamphlet of information describing the services currently provided.
            I have requested two books through interlibrary loan, Introduction to Psychiatric Rehabilitation and The Role of the Family in Psychiatric Rehabilitation, which I hope will offer some valuable insight into how the family and community can integrate care for the mentally ill.
            Additionally, I have ordered a transcript of the 60 Minutes program concerning the unique care the community of Geel, Belgium, provides for the mentally ill.  Viewing this program provided me with a new awareness and heightened interest to investigate this topic further.
4.  Sources Consulted
Anthony,W.A.(2001)Vision for Psychiatricrehabilitation Research. 
Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 25, 1. (Journal Article)
….
Dream Research Proposal
1. Introduction of Research Topic, projected value, and documentation style.
A). The topic that I have chosen to research this term is dreams. I have always been very interested in dreams, both my own and those of others, especially in connection with the psychological meaning they represent for the dreamer. A little over two years ago I suffered a tremendous loss when my best friend and two close friends were killed in a car accident. Less than eight months later a fourth very dear friend was similarly killed. In dealing with my loss I found one incredible distraction from the pain- dreaming. Immediately after the accidents I began to notice that my dreams had become more emotional and played a large role in my thoughts and mood for the next day. The night I had my first dream about my late best friend we talked about how the accident impacted me, and how he was always by my side, even when I couldn’t see him. When I woke up I felt like a different person, like the dream had washed away all of my depression. For the first time in months I was able to smile just by thinking about that dream. But when I went to look up the meaning of the dream in one of my dream analysis books I was shocked to find the supposed “inner meaning.” According to the first book I looked in, a dream of visiting a deceased friend meant that I would live a long life. Baffled, I looked in a second dream analysis book. This one said that it meant things were going to change for the better for me and good fortune was in store. It was at that exact moment that I realized that dream analysis wasn’t quite as accurate as I had once thought. In fact, many dream analysis books I’ve since encountered have different ideas about what dreams even are. With all the different theories and studies there are out there on sleep and dreaming, I decided that I would just go find the most accurate theory myself. I have a lot to learn about dreaming, and have the desire to learn it. Using this topic as my research subject, I will be able to engulf myself in the incredible amount of information available to me. I believe that every individual can benefit from understanding their dreams, but knowing how to understand them is the first step. I intend for my project to be the stepping stone towards accurate understanding.
B). The research topic of dreams and dream analysis is appropriate for Writing 123 because it requires a college level understanding of theories, studies and research. Readers must be able to figure out the semi complex concepts of brain activity and psychology. Also, very importantly, there are numerous sources to be found on the topic. Virtually every source I’ve come across (journals, books, online references) have something related to the topic. However, it is mainly my desire to research dreams and theories of dream analysis that make the topic an appropriate choice. I have more than enough interest in the topic to take the project from start to finish.
C). The documentation style I have chosen for my topic is the style commonly used by the American Psychological Association, or simply put, the APA form. I feel that this documentation style is appropriate for my topic choice because the main root behind the study of dreams is psychology. Dreaming is a psychological science, and the studies done on the subject of dream analysis and interpretation would be best presented in the APA form.
2. Leading Research Question and Working Hypothesis
A). My leading research questions that I propose to pursue are: What are dreams? What are the main functions of dreams? Is dream analysis accurate? And what factors can interfere with accurate dream interpretation?
B). My working hypothesis so far is that dreams are mental images that our brains produce while we sleep to help us better understand ourselves and our feelings. Unfortunately, most forms of dream analysis are not accurate due to numerous factors that can be very influential on dream content, and are usually not taken into account while the dream is being interpreted. These factors can include, but aren’t restricted to physical stimuli (such as noise, light, temperature), hunger, thirst, the culture you live in, and day to day experiences.
3. Research Strategy#p#分页标题#e#
A). Through my research I intend to find:
* What are the many theories of the function of dreams?
* Do all people dream?
* How often do people dream?
* What are the different types of dreams?
* Why don’t we always remember our dreams?
* How do different cultures interpret dreams?
* Where did dream analysis originate?
* Is dream analysis accurate?
* What common factors interfere with the accurate interpretation of dreams?
So far I know that various critical thinkers and psychologists have conflicting theories of dream functions. Some consider them random thoughts of the sleeping brain, others consider them a result of the digestion process, and still others believe that dreams are our soul’s unrestricted out of body travels that occur while we sleep. It is fairly widely agreed by sleep researchers that all people dream every night, with the rare exception of some substance abusers. I have reviewed a few different theories of dream types, such as lucid dreams, telepathic dreams, and nightmares. I have also uncovered some theories of why we don’t always remember dreaming. Most theories have to do with the long and short term memory storage function of our brains, and conditions which limit our abilities. I have collected many sources on dream analysis already, and am confident that I have many more to go.
B). I will look for the answers to my questions in many places. The COCC library so far has produced ten sources that I have deemed appropriate after my exploratory research. The internet site www.psychology.about.com had proven very useful, containing an entire link in the home page for dreams and dream analysis. That website, in fact, has led me to a source I was unable to locate at the COCC library or Interlibrary loan. The search commands that I have used thus far have consisted of: psychologydreamsdream analysis, and dream interpretation under the keyword search. Under the author search I have used: FreudJung, Koulack and Van Eeden (all leaders in the dream analysis field). I haven’t come up empty handed yet. I have already collected enough material to support 75% of my paper, all mainly secondary sources. The bulk of my paper will be written based on the my finding in the book To Catch a Dream, and the Sleep and Dream sourcebook. I am still planning to design and implement a survey for my fellow college students that will ask them to: anonymously describe a recent dream, give a few possible reasons for the dreams (why they think that they dreamed it), and suggest a few interpretations of the psychological meaning. This survey is to be my main primary source. I will take the data that I receive and analyze it according to my two dream analysis books to see how closely the given interpretation resembles the students’ analysis. Psychology.about.com will continue to play a major role in the direction my paper goes, seeing as how it is continually updated and I can continually check up on it. I am also trying to locate 10 different issues of the Brain and Behavioral Science Journal, and four issues of the British Journal of Psychology.
4. Sources Consulted in Exploratory Research
“Culture and Dreams.” (2002) Dream Manual. Psychology.about.com. http://www.psychology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm [accessed 3 April 2002] (online reference)
Eeden, Frederik van. (1913) “A Study of Dreams.” Psychology.about.com, 2002.
http://www.psychology.about.com/library/classics/bleeden_dm0.htm [accessed 3 April ...
Hunt, Harry T. (1989). The Multiplicity of Dreams: Memory, Imagination and Consciousness. New Haven: Yale University Press. (book)
 
A Proposal to Research the Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel at Yucca Mountain
Roger Bloom
October 1997
 
Introduction
Nuclear power plants produce more than 20 percent of the electricity used in the United States [Murray, 1989]. Unfortunately, nuclear fission, the process used to create this large amount energy, creates significant amounts of high level radioactive waste. More than 30,000 metric tons of nuclear waste have arisen from U.S. commercial reactors as well as high level nuclear weapons waste, such as uranium and plutonium [Roush, 1995]. Because of the build-up of this waste, some power plants will be forced to shut down. To avoid losing an important source of energy, a safe and economical place to keep this waste is necessary. This document proposes a literature review of whether Yucca Mountain is a suitable site for a nuclear waste repository. The proposed review will discuss the economical and environmental aspects of a national storage facility. This proposal includes my methods for gathering information, a schedule for completing the review, and my qualifications.
 
Statement of Problem
On January 1, 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) must accept spent nuclear fuel from commercial plants for permanent storage [Clark, 1997]. However, the DOE is undecided on where to put this high level radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain, located in Nevada, is a proposed site.
There are many questions regarding the safety of the Yucca Mountain waste repository. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory disagree over the long-term safety of the proposed high level nuclear waste site located in Nevada. In 1994, Charles Bowman, a researcher at Los Alamos, developed a theory claiming that years of storing waste in the mountain may actually start a nuclear chain reaction and explode, similar to an atomic bomb [Taubes, 1995]. The stir caused by theory suggests that researchers have not explored all sides of the safety issue concerning potentially hazardous situations at Yucca Mountain.
Bowman's theory that Yucca Mountain could explode is based upon the idea that enough waste will eventually disperse through the rock to create a critical mass. A critical mass is an amount of fissile material, such as plutonium, containing enough mass to start a neutron chain reaction [Murray, 1989]. Bowman argues that if this chain reaction were started underground, the rocks in the ground would help keep the system compressed and speed up the chain reaction [Taubes, 1995]. A chain reaction formed underground could then generate huge amounts of energy in a fraction of a second, resulting in a nuclear blast. A nuclear explosion of this magnitude would emit large amounts of radioactivity into the air and ground water.
Another safety concern is the possibility of a volcanic eruption in Yucca Mountain. The long-term nuclear waste storage facility needs to remain stable for at least 10,000 years to allow the radioactive isotopes to decay to natural levels [Clark, 1997]. There are at least a dozen young volcanoes within 40 kilometers of the proposed Yucca Mountain waste site [Weiss, 1996]. The proximity of Yucca Mountain to these volcanoes makes it possible to have a volcanic eruption pass through the spent fuel waste repository. Such a volcanic eruption could release damaging amounts of radioactivity to the environment.
 
Objectives
I propose to review the available literature about using Yucca Mountain as a possible repository for spent nuclear fuel. In this review I will achieve the following two goals:
(1) explain the criteria for a suitable repository of high-level radioactive waste; and
(2) determine whether Yucca Mountain meets these criteria.
According to the Department of Energy (DOE), a repository for high-level radioactive waste must meet several criteria including safety, location, and economics [Roush, 1995]. Safety includes not only the effect of the repository on people near the site, but also people along the transportation routes to the site. In my research I will consider both groups of people. As far as location, a waste site cannot be in an area with a large population or near a ground water supply. Also, because one of the most significant factors in determining the life span of a possible repository is how long the waste storage canisters will remain in tact, the waste site must be located in a dry climate to eliminate the moisture that can cause the waste canisters to corrode. The economics involved in selecting a site is another criterion. At present, the Department of Energy (DOE) has spent more than 1.7 billion dollars on the Yucca Mountain project [Taubes, 1995]. For that reason, much pressure exists to select Yucca Mountain as a repository site; otherwise, this money would have been wasted. Other costs, though, have to be considered. For instance, how economical is it to transport radioactive waste across several states to a single national site? I will try to account for as many of these other costs as possible.
After explaining the criteria, I will assess how well Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. In this assessment, I will not assign a numerical score for each criterion. Rather, I will discuss qualitatively how well Yucca Mountain meets each criterion. In some situations, disagreement exists among experts as to how well Yucca Mountain meets a criterion. In such cases, I will present both sides. In this assessment, only Yucca Mountain will be considered as a possible site. Although many sites in the United States could meet the DOE's established criteria, I will consider only Yucca Mountain because the DOE is considering only Yucca Mountain [Taube, 1995].#p#分页标题#e#
 
Plan of Action
This section presents my plan for obtaining the objectives discussed in the previous section. There has been an increase of interest in the nuclear industry concerning the Yucca Mountain site because of the January 1,1998, deadline for the DOE. Several journal articles and papers discussing the possibility of Yucca Mountain as a spent fuel repository in our near future have surfaced as a consequence of that interest. These articles and books about the dangers of nuclear waste should provide sufficient information for me to complete my review. The following two paragraphs will discuss how I will use these sources in my research.
The first goal of my research is to explain the criteria for determining whether a nuclear waste repository is suitable. For example, will the rock structure be able to withstand human invasion in the future [Clark, 1997]? What will happen if the waste containers corrode and do not last as long as predicted? Will the natural setting contain the waste? To achieve this goal, I will rely on "Background on 40 CFR Part 197 Environmental Standards for Yucca Mountain" [Clark, 1997], the DOE Yucca Mountain home page [1997], and the book Understanding Radioactive Waste [Murray, 1989].
A second goal of my literature review is to evaluate Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. I will base my evaluation on the sources mentioned above as well as specific Environmental Protection Agency standards. I also intend to research the validity of possible environmental disasters, such as the explosion theory. To accomplish this goal, I will rely on the paper presented by Clark [1997], and on the book Blowup at Yucca Mountain [Taubes, 1995].
Because engineering students are the primary audience for my proposed research topic and may not be familiar with the history of nuclear waste, I will provide a background on past methods used for waste storage. People in the nuclear field with some knowledge of the waste problem facing the industry may be a secondary audience.
 
Management Plan
This section presents my schedule, costs, and qualifications for completing the proposed research. This research culminates in a formal report, which will be completed by December 5, 1997. To reach this goal, I will follow the schedule presented in Figure 1. Since I already possess literature on the subject of Yucca Mountain as a nuclear waste site, most of my time will be spent sorting through the literature to find key results, and presenting those results to the audience.
Proposal
Figure 1. Schedule for completion of the literature review. The formal presentation will be on October 27, and the formal report will be completed by December 5.
Given that all my sources are available through the University of Wisconsin library system, there is no appreciable cost associated with performing this review, unless one takes into consideration the amount of tuition spent on maintaining the university libraries. The only other minor costs are photocopying articles, creating transparencies for my presentation, printing my report, and binding my report. I estimate these expenses will not exceed $20.
I am a senior in the Engineering Physics Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, majoring in nuclear engineering and physics. I have taken several classes related to nuclear waste, economics, and environmental studies. I believe that these courses will aid me in preparing the proposed review. For further information about my qualifications, see the attached resume.
 
Conclusion
More than 30,000 metric tons of nuclear waste have arisen from U.S. commercial reactors as well as high level nuclear weapons waste, such as uranium and plutonium [Roush, 1995]. This document has proposed research to evaluate the possibility of using Yucca Mountain as a possible repository for this spent nuclear fuel. The proposed research will achieve the following goals: (1) explain the criteria necessary to make a suitable high level radioactive waste repository, and (2) determine if Yucca Mountain meets these criteria. The research will include a formal presentation on November 11 and a formal report on December 5.
 
References
Clark, Raymond L., "Background on 40 CFR Part 197 Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain," Proceedings of the 1997 Waste Management Conference (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997).
Kerr, R., "New Way to Ask the Experts: Rating Radioactive Waste Risks," Science, vol.274, (November1996), pp. 913-914.
Murray, Raymond L., Understanding Nuclear Waste (Battelle Press, 1989).
Roush, W., "Can Nuclear Waste Keep Yucca Mountain Dry-and Safe?" Science, vol. 270, (December 1995), pp. 1761-1762.
Taubes, G., "Blowup at Yucca Mountain," Science, vol.268, (June 1995), pp. 1836-1839.
 
 
A Proposal to Review How Geophysical Precursors Can Help Predict Earthquakes
Christopher Gray
February 1995
 
Introduction
Throughout the world, devastating earthquakes occur with little or no advance warning. Some of these earthquakes kill hundreds of people. If the times, magnitudes, and locations of these earthquakes could be accurately predicted, many lives could be saved. This document proposes a review of how monitoring geophysical precursors can help in the short-term prediction of earthquakes. The proposed review will discuss the physical principles behind the monitoring of three common precursors and evaluate how accurate each monitoring is in predicting earthquakes. Included in this proposal are my methods for gathering information, a schedule for completing the review, and my qualifications.
 
Justification of Proposed Review
On the morning of April 18, 1906, the population of San Francisco was awakened by violent shaking and by the roar caused by the writhing and collapsing of buildings [Hodgson, 1964]. The ground appeared to be thrown into waves that twisted railways and broke the pavement into great cracks. Many buildings collapsed, while others were severely damaged. The earthquake caused fires in fifty or more points throughout the city. Fire stations were destroyed, alarms were put out of commission, and water mains were broken. As a result, the fires quickly spread throughout the city and continued for three days. The fires destroyed a 5 square-mile section at the heart of the city [Mileti and Fitzpatrick, 1993]. Even more disastrous was the Kwanto earthquake in Japan that devastated the cities of Yokohama and Tokyo on September 1, 1923 [Hodgson, 1993]. In Yokohama, over 50 percent of the buildings were destroyed [Bolt, 1993], and as many as 208 fires broke out and spread through the city [Hodgson, 1964]. When the disaster was over, 33,000 people were dead [Bolt, 1993]. In Tokyo, the damage from the earthquake was less, but the resulting fires were more devastating. The fires lasted three days and destroyed 40 percent of the city [Hodgson, 1964]. After the fire, 68,000 people were dead and 1 million people were homeless [Bolt, 1993].
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the Kwanto earthquake were two of the most famous and devastating earthquakes of this century. These earthquakes struck without warning and with disastrous results. If earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to evacuate from buildings, bridges, and overpasses, where most deaths occur.
Some earthquakes have been successfully predicted. One of the most famous predictions was the Haicheng Prediction in China. In 1970, Chinese scientists targeted the Liaoning Province as a site with potential for a large earthquake. These scientists felt that an earthquake would occur there in 1974 or 1975. On December 20, 1974, an earthquake warning was issued. Two days later, a magnitude 4.8 earthquake struck the Liaoning Province; however, further monitoring suggested a larger earthquake was imminent [Mileti and others, 1981]. On February 4, 1975, the Chinese issued a warning that an earthquake would strike Haicheng within 24 hours [Bolt, 1993]. The people in Haicheng were evacuated, and about 5.5 hours later, a magnitude 7.3 earthquake shook the city of Haicheng. If the people hadn't been evacuated, the death toll could have exceeded 100,000.
Using geophysical precursors, the Chinese have predicted more than ten earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 5.0 [Meyer, 1977]. For example, the Chinese predicted a pair of earthquakes of magnitude 6.9 that occurred 97 minutes apart in Yunnan on May 19, 1976 [Bolt, 1993]. Despite these successes, the Chinese failed to predict the earthquake that struck the city of Tangshan on July 27, 1976; this earthquake killed 250,000 people and injured 500,000 more [Bolt, 1988]. This earthquake wasn't completely unexpected, but the Chinese believed it to be a few years away. Other earthquakes have been predicted, but the predictions didn't have enough precision for warnings to be issued. For example, in 1983, a young geophysicist predicted that an earthquake of magnitude 8 would strike Mexico City within four years [Deshpande, 1987]. Two years later, an earthquake of magnitude 8 did strike Mexico City. Because the prediction was not more precise, no warning was issued and the earthquake took the population of Mexico City by surprise. Other predictions have turned out to be false warnings. For example, an earthquake warning was issued in August 1976 near Hong Kong [Bolt, 1988]. During the earthquake alert, people slept outdoors for two months. No earthquake occurred.
 
Objectives#p#分页标题#e#
I propose to review the available literature on how geophysical precursors can be used for short-term predictions of earthquakes. In this review, I will achieve the following three goals:
  1. explain three commonly monitored geophysical precursors: ground uplift and tilt, increases in radon emissions, and changes in the electrical resistivity of rocks;
  2. show what happens to each of these precursors during the five stages of an earthquake; and
  3. discuss how each of these precursors is used for short-term earthquake predictions.
Geophysical precursors are changes in the physical state of the earth that are precursory to earthquakes. In addition to monitoring geophysical precursors, there are other strategies for predicting earthquakes-in particular, analyzing statistical data on prior earthquakes. Analyzing statistical data on prior earthquakes, however, is solely a long-term prediction technique [Bolt, 1993]. For that reason, I will not consider it.
In my review, I will discuss three common geophysical precursors: ground uplift and tilt, increases in radon emissions, and changes in the electrical resistivity of rocks. Earthquakes occur in five stages as there is a build up of elastic strain within faults in the earth, followed by the development of cracks in the rocks, then the influx of water into those cracks. The fourth stage is the actual rupture of the fault and the release of seismic waves. The fifth stage is the sudden drop in stress in the fault. In this stage, aftershocks occur.
During these five stages, the geophysical precursors follow distinct patterns. For instance, the ground uplift and tilt increases during the second stage as the volume of rock increases. In my review, I will relate how the three geophysical precursors relate to the five stages of an earthquake and how well this relation can be used to predict the oncoming fault rupture.
 
Plan of Action
This section presents my plan for obtaining the objectives discussed in the previous section. Because of the recent earthquakes in California and Japan, there has arisen a strong interest to predict earthquakes precisely. As a consequence of that strong interest, many books and journals have been written on earthquakes and earthquake prediction. I have gathered five books and several articles on the subject. In addition, there are dozens of books and articles available in the library. These books and articles should provide sufficient information for me to write my review. The following paragraphs discuss how I will use these sources in my research.
The first goal of my research is to explain the physical principles behind monitoring geophysical precursors. For example, why does the electrical resistivity of rocks decrease before an oncoming earthquake? Or, what does a sudden increase in radon emissions reveal about the future likelihood of a massive earthquake? The second goal of my research is to show what happens to each of these precursors during the five stages of an earthquake. To achieve these two goals, I will rely on three books that give an overview to earthquake prediction: Earthquakes [Bolt, 1988], Earthquakes and Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993], and Earthquakes and Earth Structure [Hodgson, 1964].
A third primary goal of the literature review is to cover the accuracy of monitoring each precursor. By accuracy, I mean how well does the method work in predicting the time, place, and size of earthquakes. This discussion will not include many statistics on the predictions of earthquakes, because at present there just haven't been enough successful predictions to validate these types of statistics. Instead, I intend to evaluate the potential accuracy of monitoring each precursor based on the opinions of experts and preliminary data. To achieve this goal, I will rely on two of my most recent sources: The Great Earthquake Experiment [Mileti and Fitzpatrick, 1993] and Earthquakes and Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993].
Should I require additional sources other than the ones I have, I will search for them in the library system at the University of Wisconsin. Should I not be able to find that information, I will modify the scope of my research accordingly.
Because the primary readers for my proposed literature review are engineering students who are probably not familiar with the theories behind earthquakes, I will have to provide selected background information frommy sources. These engineering students already know that earthquakes are devastating. They also know that if earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to prepare for them and lives would be saved. However, they may not know the different methods of predicting earthquakes. My intent is to inform these students of three methods of predicting earthquakes.
A secondary audience for the review would be non-technical readers who either live in earthquake-prone areas or are affected financially when earthquakes occur. My proposed literature review will provide this group with an unbiased discussion of three methods for earthquake prediction. This discussion, drawing much from overview chapters in Earthquakes, Animals and Man [Deshpande, 1987] and California Quake [Meyer, 1977], will put into perspective how accurate, or inaccurate, the named methods are and what hurdles face engineers who try to predict earthquakes.
 
Management Plan
This section presents my schedule, costs, and qualifications for performing the proposed research. The proposed research project culminates in a formal report that will be completed by December 6, 1995. To reach this goal, I will follow the schedule presented in Figure 1. Because I already possess several books and articles on earthquake prediction, most of my time will be spent sifting through the information, finding the key results, and presenting those results to the audience.
Proposal
Figure 1. Schedule for completion of literature review. The two triangles represent milestones for the project, the first being the formal presentation on November 11, 1996, and the second being the formal report on December 6, 1996.
Given that I can obtain all my sources for the literature review from the library, there is no appreciable cost associated with performing this literature review. The only costs, which will be minor, are for copying articles, printing the review, and spiral binding the review. I estimate that I can do these tasks for under $10.
I am a senior in the Geological Engineering Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. In my undergraduate courses I have taken rock mechanics, soil mechanics, geophysics, and stratigraphy, all of which have included the principles of seismology and stress-strain relationships. In addition, I have taken field courses on structural geology that have introduced me to subsurface behaviors. I believe that these courses and my hands-on experience will aid me in assimilating the proposed literature review. For further information about my qualifications, see the attached resume (not attached on this web site).
 
References
Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1988).
Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes and Geological Discovery (New York: Scientific American Library, 1993).
Deshpande, Prof. B. G., Earthquakes, Animals and Man (Pune, India: The Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1987).
Hodgson, John H., Earthquakes and Earth Structure (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964).
Meyer, Larry L., California Quake (Nashville: Sherbourne Press, 1977).
Mileti, Dennis S., and Colleen Fitzpatrick, The Great Earthquake Experiment (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993).
 
 
The perspectives of using online marketing research
Name Goes Here:
Name of University Here:


Introduction
The evolution of the internet is perhaps the most bewildering and comprehensive enhancement of information technologies that has been witnessed in the past decade. The internet has restructured the way people communicate, both on a personal and professional level. For instance, the social web has taken over Advertising, Marketing, promotion, Public Relations, Customer Service and novel conduits and tools.
Information obtained from this research will be significant in shaping the success of new online research products and services. Most online research consumers spring from the professional division; as a result, prices of quality online research tend to be a bit on the high side. This attracts the attention of companies to consumers in the personal or normal consumer segment. It is anticipated that online research should target both segments (professional and personal) with the price factor in mind and this research will determine whether this is a veritable fact or not (Chisnall 186).


1.0. Research objectives
The following research objectives have been identified:
1.1.To identify the right tools, methods and opportunities of marketing research online
1.2.To explore the internal and external characteristics that online research consumers value when purchasing online research products and services.
1.3.To investigate the psychology of online research consumers prior to purchasing the product or service as well as market features such as price.
1.4. To determine what features make online research competitors perform well particularly for online services that are provided in various countries.#p#分页标题#e#


2.0. The research question
A research question is critical in determining the type of information to be explored in the research. The development of the research question will be significantly guided by competition within the online research industry (Dillon 143). As noted, there are a myriad of companies offering online research products and services. Consequently, the nature of marketing online has changed significantly (Greene 27). Companies are now able to offer different products and services including:
Academic research,
consumer product research,
Advertising Testing and Recall,
Awareness and Usage,
Concept Tests,
Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty surveys
Longitudinal Tracking,
New Product Tests, ? Pricing,
Website Evaluation, e.t.c.
Since the Internet is a level playing field that allows everyone to leverage their strategic marketing endeavors in reaching an extensive, targeted audience, this makes online market to be highly competitive. Therefore, the research question will be derived from this perspective (Carroll 25).


3.0. Methodology
A budget will be developed for both secondary and primary research. The research design will be both quantitative and qualitative (Johnson 20). Quantitative aspects will consists of the numerical aspects of the research such as price, while qualitative aspects of the research will aim at exploring consumer experiences particularly with regard to purchasing decisions (Granello 390). Data collection methods will include:
3.1. Desk research
3.2. Online surveys
3.3. Personal interviews with frontline agents


4.0. Quality levels
In order to ensure good quality levels within the research, findings will be correlated to other related research with an aim of establishing the relationship between them. This research will also take into account aspects of personal judgment (Strange 5). In addition, triangulation method will be used to ensure high quality levels within the research. This will where a series of methods will be used so as minimize bias related with the use of a single method. Three main methods will be used, these include; indepth interviews, desk research, and well-structured online questionnaires. The deficiencies of using one method will be minimized by the strength in another method (Patton 146).
5.0. Resources
The research needs time and money; these are the most valuable resources for the research and should be budgeted in advance. The following section shows how time and finances.

6.0. Data analysis
The research will adopt a systematic approach in ensuring that the data collected is accurate. The process will involve; data collection, data immersion, data reduction, categorization, processing and finally data evaluation (Creswell 203).


7.0. Conclusion
This is where the research will be combined, both qualitative and quantitative, so as to gain an insightful analysis of the relevant facts and figures in explaining market trends. Findings will be summarized and conclusions drawn in accordance with the research questions.

Sample Dissertation Proposal Works Cited Carroll, Jim, & Broadhead, R, “Online Marketing Strategies.” 2004, Web.
Chisnall, P. “Marketing research.” (5th Ed.), McGraw-Hill, (1997). Creswell, J. W. “Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods approach”.SAGE. Thousand Oaks. USA, (2003). Dillon, William R., Madden, Thomas, J. & Firtle, Neil, H. “Marketing Research In A Marketing Environment.” (2nd Ed.) Times Mirror/Mosby College Publishing, (1990).
Granello, D. H, & Wheaton, Joe E. “Online Data Collection: Strategies for Research.” Journal of Counseling & Development, 82.4 (2004) 387 – 393
Greene, J. ‘Mixed-method evaluation: a way of democratically engaging with difference’, Evaluation Journal of Australasia 2, 2 (2002): 23-29
Johnson, R. & Onwuegbuzie,A. ‘Mixed methods research: a research paradigm whose time has come’, Educational

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