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留学生Assignment课程格式介绍-附范文一篇

时间:2019-05-27 15:28来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
留学assignment写作格式要求是什么 样的,通过一下图片大家可以大致了解下对于一篇课程assignment的要求,并附上以此我标准的范文一篇,希望能打大家带来帮助。 Introduction 介绍 在21世纪,转基因技术已经成为最重要的技术之一(Frewer等人,2003)。相应地,转基因食品彻底更新了传统食品的概念,摆脱了人类饥饿和贫困的现实危机。然而,转基因食品也会给环境和人类健康带来不可预测的风险。因此,关于转基因食品的争论从未停止过,并成为全世界关注的焦点。 In the 21th century, genetically modified technology has become one of the most important technologies (Frewer, et al., 2003). C

留学assignment写作格式要求是什么 样的,通过一下图片大家可以大致了解下对于一篇课程assignment的要求,并附上以此我标准的范文一篇,希望能打大家带来帮助。

Introduction 介绍
在21世纪,转基因技术已经成为最重要的技术之一(Frewer等人,2003)。相应地,转基因食品彻底更新了传统食品的概念,摆脱了人类饥饿和贫困的现实危机。然而,转基因食品也会给环境和人类健康带来不可预测的风险。因此,关于转基因食品的争论从未停止过,并成为全世界关注的焦点。
In the 21th century, genetically modified technology has become one of the most important technologies (Frewer, et al., 2003). Correspondingly, genetically modified foods has completely updated the concepts of traditional food, andgot rid of the realistic crisis of human hunger and poverty. However, genetically modified foods would also bring unpredictable risks to both the environment and human health. Thus, the debate about genetically modified foods have never ceased, and become the focus of attention around the world. 
The definition of genetically modified foods转基因食品的定义
基因改造过程是指利用基因改造技术将一个或多个外源基因转移到一个特定的有机体,该特定的有机体能够有效地表达相应的多肽或蛋白质(Frewer等,2004)。转基因食品的原料是转基因生物。转基因食品可分为三类:转基因植物食品、转基因动物食品和转基因微生物(Frewer等,2003)。
The process of genetically modified refers to one or more exogenous genes are transferred to a specific organism by using genetically modified technology, and the specific organism can effectively express the corresponding polypeptides or proteins (Frewer, et al., 2004). The raw materials of genetically modified foods is the genetically modified organisms. The genetically modified food can be divided into 3 categories: the genetically modified plant food, the genetically modified animal food, and genetically modified microorganism(Frewer, et al., 2003). 
The benefits of genetically modified foods转基因食品的好处
转基因技术可以提高作物的生产力,解决食品短缺,减少环境污染(Frewer等,2004)。利用基因工程技术,如DNA重组技术、细胞融合技术,生物学家将抗病、抗虫、抗旱或其他胁迫的基因整合到农作物中。新品种具有优良特性,能有效降低生产成本,提高产量。因此,转基因食品不仅可以解决食品短缺问题,而且可以减少或避免使用农药和化肥。
i. The genetically modified technology can boost the productivity of crop, address the shortages of foods, and reduce the pollution of environment(Frewer, et al., 2004). Using genetic engineering techniques, such as DNA recombination technology, cell fusion techniques, biologist would integrate genes resisting disease, pests, drought, or other stresses into crops. The new GM strains with good characters can effectively reduce the production cost and increase the production. Thus, the genetically modified foods can not only solve the shortages of foods, but also reduce or avoid the usage of pesticides and fertilizers. 
ii. In addition, the genetically modified technology canextend the preservation of fruit and vegetable(Frewer, et al., 2003). For example, after adding antifreeze gene of a kind of Marie fish growth in the arctic regions in ordinary tomatoes, the shelf life time of tomatoes can be greatly prolonged. 
iii. The genetically modified technology can improve the taste and quality of food (Schneider & Schneider, 2009). The method of changing flavors of traditional foods is adding additive agent. However, the additive agent contains harmful ingredients. By changing or transferring certain genes, the genetically modified technology can change the taste and nutrients of food. For example, importing or replacing gene of milk can produce ate milk for specific group. Moreover, the genetically modified technology can provide an effective way to cultivate excellent new strains and improve the quality of animal food. 
iv. Thegenetically modified technology can produce healthy food and disease- fighting foods(Frewer, et al., 2004). For example, Japanese scientists have produced a kind of new rice varieties, which can reduce serum cholesterol and prevent arteriosclerosis. European scientist have bred a kind of new rice containing a lot of iron, vitamin A, which can reduce the incidence of iron – deficiency anemia. 
v. Lastly, the genetically modified technology can make food out of the impacts of season and climate(Schneider & Schneider, 2009). In specific, genetically modified technology allows people to eat fresh fruit all the year round, and foods have distinctive flavor. British scientists have transferred the mutant gene destroying chlorophyll into the grass, and make the grass evergreen. Apart from the green features, beef cattle can eat these grass and improve the quality of meat. 
The drawbacks of genetically modified foods
I. Genetically modified crops are likely to evolve as weeds. For example, Canadian has planted genetically modified rapeseed with herbicide and seed properties. Only a few years later, they discovered a variety of herbicide resistant weeds of rapeseed. 
II. The genetically modified foods will threat biological diversity (Magnusson&Hursti, 2002). Genetically modified crops tend to have strong sense of “selective advantage”, which could affect the genetic structure of plant gene banks. Thus, the genetically modified foods will sift out the species on original habitat and other genetic resources, which causes biological dramatic reduction or the loss of biological diversity. 
III. The genetically modified foods may be toxic(Magnusson &Hursti, 2002). In specific, the genetically modified technology may increase and accumulate the original micro-toxins of food. 
IV. The genetically modified technology may destroy the nutriment(Magnusson &Hursti, 2002). For example, in the genetically modified soybean resisting herbicide, the anti-cancer ingredient of isoflavone is less than original soybean. 
V. Antibiotic resistance marker gene may make people and animals become resistant(Frewer, et al., 2003). 
Conclusion
Facing with pros and cons of genetically modified foods, consumers can neither embrace genetically modified foods as the savior of mankind, nor keep away genetically modified foods. Thus, we should have a correct understanding, reason analysis and careful selection of genetically modified foods. 
 
Reference: 
Frewer, L. J., Scholderer, J., &Bredahl, L. (2003). Communicating about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods: The mediating role of trust.Risk analysis, 23(6), 1117-1133.
Frewer, L., Lassen, J., Kettlitz, B., Scholderer, J., Beekman, V., &Berdal, K. G. (2004). Societal aspects of genetically modified foods. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42(7), 1181-1193.
Magnusson, M. K., &Hursti, U. K. K. (2002). Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods. Appetite, 39(1), 9-24.
Schneider, K. R., & Schneider, R. G. (2009). Genetically modified food.Retrieved September, 26, 2010.


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