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美国法学Master assignment格式范文:Climate change and nuclear power d

时间:2019-07-15 10:26来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
Introduction介绍 2011年3月11日,日本东北部福岛第一核电站发生爆炸,引发了一场核灾难。国际原子能机构(IAEA)已将这起事故的规模定为4级,其规模高、影响范围广,破坏力更大,被称为另一
Introduction介绍
2011年3月11日,日本东北部福岛第一核电站发生爆炸,引发了一场核灾难。国际原子能机构(IAEA)已将这起事故的规模定为4级,其规模高、影响范围广,破坏力更大,被称为另一种“切尔诺贝利”。人类利用核能解决能源问题。工业时代的GY危机,为人类的生存和可持续发展创造了新的可能性和机遇,但自20世纪50年代以来核泄漏事故不断发生并造成了严重后果。不由得以为这是人类文明在地球上的进步,或是人类文明开始毁灭,一个人是这项新技术的主人或奴隶。一方面,为了人类的幸福空前、无限的能力和美好的前景,另一方面,可能破坏人类的生存环境,给人类发展的未来蒙上一层阴影,增加人类发展方向的不确定性(韦伯和海厄,2017页)。随着经济的增长、社会的进步和人口的增加,人类对自然的控制和驾驭能力逐渐增强,随后人类活动对自然环境的严重破坏、对地表的破坏,如果不加以控制,它将继续威胁到地球。的生物圈。这种破坏往往是不可逆转的,进而影响人类和社会的发展。
后工业时代也是历史发展和特定阶段的产物,自然继承了前两步文明的全部成果,也受到了种种不利因素的影响。因此,危机除了具有上述两个时代的特征外,还表现出以下独特的特征:一是全球性的,是指危机的对象和范围,其后果超出了以往地方和地区的范围,具有显著的综合性。例如关于气候变暖的危险性,臭氧洞是一个国家范围之外的,而且涉及到高科技的空气、海洋和外层空间,可以是危机后的源头,而危机一旦发生,可能会超出人类解决能力的范围,其破坏程度是严重的。(Wright&Nyberg,2017年)。二是综合性,是指导致危机的因素的多样性和综合性,往往会引起连锁反应。例如,金融危机的影响不仅在商业层面,也在社会生活层面。有一种高科技,是指后工业危机主要是由于高科技工具使用不当造成的,如空气污染造成的废弃物、外层空间辐射污染造成的电子废弃物、核事故造成的生态破坏等,长期存在。
An explosion at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant in the northeast of Japan on March 11, 2011, triggered a nuclear meltdown. The scale of the accident has been set by the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) at level 4, with a high level of magnitude, broad scope of influence and a more considerable destructive force, which is known as another "Chernobyl." Human use of nuclear energy to solve the problem of the energy crisis of the industrial age, create new possibilities for human survival and sustainable development and opportunities, but since the 1950 s ongoing nuclear leakage accident and caused severe consequences.  It can't help thinking it is the progress of human civilization on earth, or the beginning of the destruction of human civilization, a human is the master of this new technology or a slave. It on the one hand, for the happiness of humanity unprecedented, unlimited capacity and good prospects, on the other side, may destroy the human survival environment, to cast a pall over the future of the human development, increase human development direction of more uncertainty (Webb & Hayhoe, 2017). With economic growth, social progress and the increase of population, human control and the ability to harness natural gradually increase, followed by human activities on the natural environment of the severe damage, damage to surface damage, if uncontrolled it will continue even threaten the earth's biosphere. Such destruction is often irreversible and, in turn, affects human and social development.
The post-industrial age is also a product of historical development and a particular stage, which naturally inherits all the achievements of civilization in the first two steps, and also receives all the disadvantages. So it appears crisis besides has the characteristics of the above two times all, also showed the following unique features: one is global, refers to the object and scope of the crisis and the consequences are beyond the scope of previous local and regional, has noticeable comprehensive. For example about the dangers of climate warming, the ozone hole is beyond the scope of a country, and involving high-tech air, sea, and outer space, can be after the crisis source, and the crisis once produces probably beyond the scope of the human ability to solve, the damage is severe to measure (WRIGHT & NYBERG, 2017). The second is comprehensive, which refers to the diversification and synthesis of the factors causing the crisis, which often cause a chain reaction. The impact of the financial crisis, for example, is not only on the commercial level but also on the social life level. There is a high-tech, refers to the post-industrial crisis are mostly caused by the improper use of high-tech tools, such as air waste caused by pollution, e-waste from outer space radiation pollution, ecological destruction brought by the nuclear accident, for a long time, and so on.
The consequence of the climate change and nuclear power development 气候变化和核能发展的后果
Legal issue 
Now the nuclear materials, nuclear fuel and reactors lass and nuclear emergency special disposal act, are two basic laws in the development of the Japanese nuclear power. Although seemingly the nuclear program, the content of examination and approval, supervision rules are all the responsibilities of the roles involved in the nuclear emergency (Yorucu & Katircioğlu, 2014). For example, the structure of the emergency headquarters, daily check of examination and approval rules, where the cooperation with the cabinet, the qualification standards of the person in charge of nuclear enterprise but leak a lot. According to the current Japanese law, for example, the safety status of nuclear power plant mainly relies on enterprise checklist, and according to the relevant situation analysis, Japan's nuclear safety agency at the plant in advance has felt something was amiss, but still can only handle affairs by the chapter, TEPCO checklist, confirm whether has been fully checking the plant facilities. On February 28th TEPCO submitted a report to the nuclear safety court admitting that it had not checked 33 parts of the plant's six units. In its report, TEPCO also acknowledged that a distribution plant had not inspected for 11 years (Wiwanitkit & Pandey, 2012). The device is used to distribute current to the temperature control system of a reactor. Also, the cooling pump motor, diesel generators, and other cooling system components also lack regular inspection. It is clear that the "inspection report" can be reported on time without regular checks, which means that inspectors from TEPCO are still forging "inspection records." But the two sides are "tacit cooperation," it is just because of the so-called examination, only enterprise "checklist," I made a report, you don't, I'll recognize some accounts, as to whether the rectification, that is my job. Regulators and regulators, in the friendly atmosphere of neoliberal "deregulation," are so aware of this "cat and mouse" game. Sure enough, after receiving the report from TEPCO, Japan's nuclear safety institute asked TEPCO to submit a correction plan by June 2 (De Ausen, et. Al., 2013). Just bad weather, this time did not wait until June, the plant's March 11 earthquake and tsunami, the cooling system is damaged, TEPCO bungle fighter, eventually led to the nuclear leak. Over the years, it has been a matter of time before Japan's nuclear power plants have been in trouble.
Major international environmental law instruments were dealing with public participation. The parties must ensure that the environmental impact assessment (EIA) is engaged in public participation before the approval of the proposed activities that could result in significant adverse trans boundary impacts (Chung & Yeung, 2013). The EIA is a program that ensures that the environmental impact of decisions is taken into account before making a decision. The process includes analysis of the project may impact on the environment, to record these effects in a report, for public consultation report, due to consider the opinions and report on the final decision, then inform the decision to the public. They are increasingly being used as a major tool for stakeholders in the field of nuclear energy, and they have become a basic tool for preventing adverse environmental impacts from the implementation of nuclear projects. In principle, the EIA will focus on the physical impact of the environment, but it is also used as a tool to identify and address social issues such as nuclear safety. Each party that may be affected by the proposed project may be affected by the proposed project and have the right to negotiate with the originator on potentially adverse transboundary environmental issues (Wiwanitkit, 011). Suggested activities and measures to reduce or eliminate such effects. Members of the public in areas likely to be affected by the proposed project must also have the opportunity to participate in the relevant EIA process, which is equivalent to the relevant era procedures provided to the party's public. Legislation on public participation in nuclear decision-making tends to focus on the project level. In many countries, however, there is now a tendency for the public to participate in earlier stages of decision-making. Especially in the process of formulating new policies and laws and regulations, Greenpeace has been awarded the Supreme Court's ruling in the consultation process of its nuclear power policy in the UK government. In 2003, an energy white paper released by the government indicated that there would be the fullest public consultation before any decision to build more nuclear plants. In 2006,


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