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关于组织发展和计划变革的研究 - 以The Cut为例

时间:2019-06-18 17:17:45 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:11
Executive summary执行摘要
 
本报告的目的是以CUT为研究对象,探讨如何运用组织发展理论来解决组织发展过程中的问题,从而为组织发展的人力资源管理战略做出正确的决策。组织发展使组织更开放,更乐于接受创造性的思想,促进组织成员之间的相互理解,缓解成员之间的紧张关系,提高团队合作。通过对切口的分析,可以看出它在员工沟通与合作、组织活力、员工的工作积极性和对工作的承诺等方面存在较大的问题,在组织发展理论的基础上,可以帮助它解决管理中的问题,突破发展的瓶颈。笔者作为一名实践者,提出了对企业发展的干预,包括人力资源管理资源干预、人际干预、战略干预、技术结构干预等。通过这四个方面的干预措施,可以有效地帮助企业提高员工满意度和客户满意度,从而提高财务收入,获得可持续发展的潜力。
The aim of this report is to take The Cut as the research object to discuss how to use the theory of organizational development to solve the problems in the process of organizational development, so as to make correct decisions for human resources management strategies for the organizational development. Organizational development makes an organization more open and more receptive to creative ideas to promote mutual understanding among members of the organization, which alleviates the tension of the members and improves teamwork. Through the analysis of The Cut, it can be seen that it has larger problems in staff communication and cooperation, organizational vitality, staff's work enthusiasm and commitment to work, on the basis of the theory of organizational development can help it to solve the problems in management to break through the bottleneck of development. The author as a practitioner put forward interventions for the organizational development of The Cut, including human resources management sources interventions, interpersonal interventions, strategic intervention, technostructural interventions. Through these four aspects of intervention measures, it can effectively help The Cut to improve the employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction, and thus enhancing the financial income to obtain the sustainable development potential.
Key words: organizational development; The Cut; human resource management; communication strategy关键词:组织发展;切入点;人力资源管理;沟通策略
 
 
Table of Content
 
1.0 Introduction................................................................................................................................3
1.1 Organizational development and planned change..................................................................3
1.2 Aims.......................................................................................................................................4
1.3 Scope of report.......................................................................................................................4
2.0 The current situation and the desired future state of The Cut..............................................5
2.1 The current situation..............................................................................................................5
2.2 The desired future state..........................................................................................................5
3.0 The proposed change process....................................................................................................6
3.1 The entering and contracting process.....................................................................................6
3.2 Diagnosis................................................................................................................................6
3.3 Preparation for organizational development..........................................................................7
3.4 Intervention measures............................................................................................................9
3.5 Evaluation...........................................................................................................................12
4.0 Conclusion.................................................................................................................................13
References.......................................................................................................................................14
 
 
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Organizational development and planned change
Organizational development refers to a process that is planned to cover an entire organization and is controlled by the high-level management of the organization at the same time (Shatrevich, 2014, p.871-878). It takes improving organizational efficiency and vitality as the aim, by using behavioral scientific knowledge and through the implementation of a planned intervention in an organization to carry out the process (Shimoni, 2017, p.169). Organizational development is a systematic process of data collection, diagnosis, behavior planning, intervention and evaluation, and it is committed to enhancing the coherence between organizational structure, processes, strategies, people and culture to develop new creative solutions to organizational issues, as well as develop the organization's self-renewal capacity (Azma and Mostafapour, 2012, p.102). This is achieved through the cooperation between members of an organization and the cooperation between the organization and the change promoters who make use of behavioral science theory, research and technology.
The role of organizational development theory in organizational management includes: it makes an organization more open and more receptive to creative opinions; it promotes mutual understanding among members of an organization; it reduces the tension of the members of an organization to improve group collaboration (Shimoni, 2017, p.165). In short, organizational development helps to resolve organizational bias through effective communication between members of an organization.
Organizational development theory emphasizes that an organization should have a democratic atmosphere and it should allow emotional expression; it encourages innovation and the individuals have ownership, which is difficult for most public organizations to achieve (Azma and Mostafapour, 2012, p.106). In addition, the theory of organizational development criticizes the bureaucratic management and weakens the influence of the power of leadership. In practice, the influence of the power of leadership is still can not be ignored leadership.
Planned change is through the systematic study of the organizational structure of enterprises to formulate ideal reform programs, and then combined with the focus of work of various periods to be implemented step by step.
From the perspective of discussing organizational members' attitude in organizational change, Lewin (1991) put forward the theory that organizational change experiences the three stages of thawing, changing and freezing. First, it must change the attitude of the members of an organization. Thawing is stimulating individuals or groups to change their original attitudes, by changing people's habits and traditions and encouraging people to accept new ideas. Second, change is through the recognition and internalization, etc., so that members of an organization form a new attitude and accept new behavior. Finally, freezing refers to the use of the necessary reinforcement methods to allow the finally accepted and integrated, desired new attitude and behavior to be maintained for a long time and become a permanent part of personal character. 
Lewin’s organization change model has the advantage of providing management with an effective idea of how organizations can change, allowing management to understand the factors that promote and hinder organizational change and the relationship between the two kinds of factors (Azma and Mostafapour, 2012, p.104). The downside is that it fails to provide some details of organizational change, such as the timing of change, how the change adapts to the external environment, how to evaluate whether change is successful, and so on (Shimoni, 2017, p.170).
1.2 Aims
The purpose of this report was taking a restaurant named The Cut as a research object to explore how to use organizational development theory and change model to solve the problems that The Cut encountered in the process of organizational change and to develop a correct human resource management strategy for the planned change of the restaurant.
1.3 Scope of report
The structure of this report includes four parts, the first part is the introduction part which describes the research background and purpose of this report. The second part introduces the current organizational state and its desired future state of the restaurant. The third part describes the proposed change process of The Cut. The last part summarizes the full text.
2.0 The current situation and the desired future state of The Cut
2.1 The current situation
The current problems include the following three aspects. First, the tense relationship between the employees of The Cut led to low employee satisfaction, which was reflected in a lack of sufficient communication and cooperation between the employees, more and more conflicts between the employees, a lack of timely and fair solution to these problems. Second, there was a lack of vitality in the organization, there was not a harmonious relationship between the employees and the management, the employees were reluctant to recommend to the management on the improvement of the restaurant. Finally, there was a lack of work enthusiasm of the staff, the unreasonable arrangements of job responsibilities made the staff very confused about what they should do at work, the staff failed to get enough trust from the management and they was not authorized at work, coupled with a lack of adequate training opportunities, they could not see their personal career prospects.#p#分页标题#e#
2.2 The desired future state
The desired future state of The Cut should include the following three aspects. First, it should establish a harmonious relationship between the staff to improve cooperation and communication between the employees to improve staff satisfaction with their work. Second, it should improve the relationship between the employees and the management, by the establishment of relaxed and open corporate culture and environment to improve the vitality of the organization, so that the employees will be willing to actively make recommendations for improving the work of the restaurant. Finally, it should optimize the job responsibilities and other organizational management system, by paying attention to the development needs of individual employees, giving the employees more reasonable authorization to achieve the common development of the individuals and the organization, so that the employees will have a high enthusiasm for work.
3.0 The proposed change process
3.1 The entering and contracting process 
The Cut has achieved good operating performance in the past, but in the past 12 months the work efficiency and effectiveness of its staff have declined, the customer satisfaction has also dropped, thus affecting the restaurant's revenue. To solve this problem, the restaurant hopes to employ an experienced practitioner to help them to solve its problems in management and to provide a detailed plan for the restaurant's organizational development and to be responsible for the implementation of the plan. Once the restaurant has successfully contracted with the practitioner, the practitioner should start to collect the data and information about the restaurant's status quo. In addition to understanding quantitative and quantitative data about the restaurant's operations and management (Shimoni, 2017, p.169; Gohil and Deshpande, 2014, p. 229), the practitioner should interview the relevant staff of the organization to collect qualitative data to understand the status quo of the organization. Then, the practitioner wants more information and data to analyze the existing problems of The Cut, by classifying these problems to find out which problems are more serious, which problems need to be solved first, and what resources are needed to solve different problems (Gohil and Deshpande, 2014, p.218; Witek-Crabb, 2014; p.66). The restaurant needs to provide sufficient manpower, material resources, financial resources, at the same time, it should implement ideological mobilization, reward and punishment measurements to ensure that the staff can actively cooperate with the practitioner's work (Shimoni, 2017, p.168; Witek-Crabb, 2014; p.76).
3.2 Diagnosis
The practitioner diagnoses the organizational problems existing in The Cut. The practitioner first uses the method of action research to personally participate in the restaurant's daily management and work, observing how the restaurant manages and operates, how the employees work together, the working environment, the consumers' reactions and so on to form his own initial impression on the status quo of the restaurant, as well as recording the existing problems and some of his own views and questions about the organization (Shimoni, 2017, p.167; Witek-Crabb, 2014; p.78). Second, using interview and questionnaire to interview the management and general staff of the restaurant, the interview is carried out by means of personal interview, which is conducive to protecting individual privacy and ensuring that they tell the truth. Through the interview and the questionnaire to understand the original management system, management philosophy and business objectives of the hotel, as well as the employees' views on the current status of management of the organization and what they think about the future development of individuals and the organization (Shimoni, 2017, p.167; Prabhu, 2011, p.197-201).
The practitioner diagnoses to find problems in three aspects. First, there was a low level of employee satisfaction, resulting in a lack of adequate communication and cooperation among employees. Second, the organization lacked vitality, and employees were reluctant to suggest to the management about improving their work. Finally, repetitive and tedious work and a lack of career prospects for employees have led to a low level of employees’ enthusiasm at work. Based on the observations and interviews, the practitioner designs a report on the current issues in the restaurant and how to improve it.
3.3 Preparation for organizational development
3.3.1 OD publicity and communication
In the past, there was a lack of communication between the staff and the management, as well as a lack of communication among the staff, which not only affected the current management, but also affected the success of the future organizational development strategy, it is necessary to strengthen propaganda of related plans in the early stages of the implementation of the organizational development strategy. The practitioner is through explaining and publicizing, printing brochures, training and other forms of communication to allow the employees to get all the information about the organizational development, to ensure that the employees get all the information about the change, including the organization's current situation, strategy and vision to stimulate their confidence in the future prospects of The Cut, which is the premise for the staff to accept the change (Verčič and Vokić, 2017, p. 219; Karanges et al., 2015, p. 129). The specific way is for the management to take advantage of all the methods that can be used in the shortest possible time to allow the employees to be fully aware of the necessity of the change, so that the employees will be from different angles to understand the problems of the organization, and it will allow the employees to participate in identifying the existing problems and participate in the development of solutions. In addition, the communication must be clear, timely, credible, comprehensive, and based on data and facts (Sebastião, Zulato and Trindade, 2017, p. 863; Karanges et al., 2015, p. 131).
3.3.2 Employee mobilization
It is necessary to explain to the staff as quickly as possible about what the new action plan is, what action steps should be taken, what they should do now, what they can get from the change, at the same time, it should provide the employees with information about the restaurant’s prospects as much as possible. When the employees clearly know the progress of the organizational development and the possible beneficial results brought them, they will become partners and supporters of the development (Verčič and Vokić, 2017, p. 210; Karanges et al., 2015, p. 129). Moreover, staff surveys can be used to determine how staff of different levels understands the development, this link is both a survey and another publicity, communication (Sebastião, Zulato and Trindade, 2017, p. 871; Karanges et al., 2015, p. 130).
3.3.3 Team formation
Organizational development will bring many changes to organizational management. The practitioner needs to establish a new team to successfully achieve his strategic goal in the early stage of implementing the organizational development strategy. If the original staff can not meet the demand, it needs to recruit who are suitable for the changing culture and have the job skills needed for the organizational development, make these new employees who are willing to accept challenges, are willing to innovate and have a global concept, have strong adaptability and job competence to play their roles of leading the changes of concepts in the restaurant, enhancing the sense of crisis, as well as the influence and appeal of updating skills for their positions (Breaugh, 2008; p.103-118). 
 
3.4 Intervention measures
3.4.1 Human resources management sources interventions 
The problems in The Cut in the past were largely due to the deficiencies in its human resources management, such as poor understanding of what the employees needed, a lack of adequate development opportunities for the employees, and so on. Therefore, in the future, the practitioner needs to help the restaurant to understand and try to meet what the employees need, so as to increase the employee satisfaction. The specific strategy is designed as follows.
3.4.1.1 Satisfy what employees need
First, in the organizational development, the practitioner needs to guide the human resources department of the restaurant to make use of the analysis on the organization, employee satisfaction survey to understand the staff's requirements, so as to actively take measures to meet the needs of the employees in order to improve their work enthusiasm and enthusiasm (Poulsen and Ipsen, 2017; p.37-45; Buchko, Buscher and Buchko, 2017, p.739). However, it is worth noting that the needs of employees are endless, and what the organization can provide is limited. The human resources department should coordinate the needs of employees and what the organization can provide, on the basis of understanding the needs of the staff to deal with its human resources management work in accordance with the purpose and direction of the development to meet the staff’s requirements while maximizing the interests of the restaurant at the same time (Buchko, Buscher and Buchko, 2017, p.729). 
3.4.1.2 Downsize
Second, due to the needs of the development of the organization, the hotel in the future may change in the job responsibilities, organizational culture, communication mode and even many other aspects, such as performance appraisal, as a result, some of the original employees probably fail to adapt to the new development, downsizing seems to be inevitable (Isaksson and Johannson, 2003; p.1-15). However, a lot of research and practice show that downsizing is not always necessary in organization development (Zorn et al., 2007, p.24-33), and as a practitioner, he will not downsize staff casually, he can make use of staff training to help them to achieve the needs of the development of the organization and adapt to a series of development in the organization in management and communication. The staff training includes training on cultivating core competence of employees, such as values, ways of thinking, teamwork, innovation ability, which makes synchronized improvement in the quality of the human resources and the development of the restaurant be achieved. #p#分页标题#e#
3.4.2 Strategic intervention
The Cut’s management and operation in the past met its bottleneck, to succeed in the organizational development, it needs to take a series of measures to help the organization to redesign and implement the organizational strategy. The specific interventions include: how to gain competitive advantage, how to adapt to the external environment, how to guide the organization functioning, etc.
The practitioner can reform the leadership to achieve the above purposes, on the basis of transformational leadership theory, the reform is processed mainly from the following four aspects. First of all, the management of the restaurant should improve their idealized influence, such as using positive and rigorous work attitude to make the model for the employees, allowing the employees to trust and admire and follow, as well as have some other positive behavior, so that the management can better guide organization functioning (Wang, Demerouti and Blanc, 2017, p.195; Phaneuf et al., 2016, p.30). Then, the management should give the employees inspirational motivation, in the past, there was a low level of team cohesion in the restaurant and poor cooperation between the employees, the future management should use team spirit and emotional appeal to rally the employees to work together to achieve a goal, which will increase the organization's competitive advantage (Phaneuf et al., 2016, p.35; Li and Yuan, 2017, p.59). Followed by intellectual stimulation, in the past, the restaurant staff were reluctant to suggest on work improvement to the management, the future management should stimulate the employees to put forward their new ideas and encourage them to use new ways and new methods to solve new problems at work, participating in the development of the organization’s strategic decisions to help the organization to better adapt to the changes of the external competitive environment  (Wang, Demerouti and Blanc, 2017, p.185; Li and Yuan, 2017, p.70). Finally, individualized consideration should be given to the employees by the management. In future, the management should care about each staff by attaching great importance to their individual needs, abilities and desires, carefully listening to their opinions, and according to the different situation of each subordinate and their need to train and guide them by using distinguishing methods, which is beneficial for guiding organization functioning and increasing its competitiveness (Wang, Demerouti and Blanc, 2017, p.180; Phaneuf et al., 2016, p.33).
3.4.3 Interpersonal interventions
Organizational development theory places more emphasis on that an organization should have a democratic climate that allows for emotional expression, encouraging innovation, and individual ownership. However, the communication between employees of The Cut in the past was rather unobtrusive, and the practitioner needs to improve the communication between the employees in the following three areas. First of all, it should establish a formal communication system, all departments should institutionalize regular or non-regular communication plans, the employees have the right to decide the content and time of communication (Sebastião, Zulato and Trindade, 2017, p.863; Verčič, and Vokić, 2017, p. 219). Then, it needs to improve the communication channels, various forms of communication can be carried out between employees, employees and management, including oral communication, SMS, e-mail and other means (Sebastião, Zulato and Trindade, 2017, p. 871; Karanges et al., 2015; p.131). Finally, it should improve the corporate culture and create a corporate culture that encourages communication. The management should pay attention to the suggestions from the employees and give feedback in time. Employees can get some rewards due to provision of outstanding suggestions (Verčič, and Vokić, 2017, p.210; Karanges et al., 2015; p.129).
3.4.4 Technostructural interventions
Consumer satisfaction with The Cut is declining, so the practitioner should take technostructural interventions to improve restaurant products and services to increase consumer satisfaction, the specific measures include the following three aspects. First, it should build customer-focused business management mode, for example, by using customer relationship management systems to understand what customers need and what changes in customers' preferences are, so as to provide customers with targeted services (Sukhu, Bilgihan and Seo, 2017, p.19; Jogaratnam, 2017, p. 219). Second, it should improve the use of information management system, including order system, payment system, etc., to improve service efficiency, which on the one hand reduces customers’ waiting time, on the other hand, it reduces the burden on staff, making their work less so boring to improve employee satisfaction and thus improve customer satisfaction (Sukhu, Bilgihan and Seo, 2017, p.11; Jogaratnam, 2017, p.211). In the end, while clarifying employee responsibilities, it should strengthen employees' cooperation and give staff proper authorization, which will help the employees to solve unexpected situations and deal with consumer complaints and demands as early as possible (Men, 2011; p.435-437).
3.5 Evaluation
The practitioner needs to assess the effectiveness of the organizational development of The Cut. The evaluation tools include: financial statements, business performance analysis reports, stakeholder feedback, questionnaire survey and interview (Lee, Hallak and Sardeshmukh, 2016, p.226; Guillet et al., 2013, p.345). The evaluation is mainly divided into two parts. The first is to evaluate the implementation feedback and the implementation feedback mainly evaluates the short-term effects of the above organizational development interventions on The Cut and to correct the intervention plan based on the evaluation results. The evaluation contents first include assessing customer satisfaction rates, complaint rates, sales revenue, employee satisfaction, etc. (Lee, Hallak and Sardeshmukh, 2016, p.215; Guillet et al., 2013, p.339). The second is evaluation feedback. The evaluation feedback mainly evaluates the long-term effects of the organizational development interventions on The Cut. The evaluation includes the growth rate of sales revenue, sales plan achievement rate, talent development index, employee turnover rate, new customer growth rate, market share, and so on(Lee, Hallak and Sardeshmukh, 2016, p.228; Guillet et al., 2013, p.346).
 
4.0 Conclusion
Organizational development makes organizations more open and more receptive to creative ideas by promoting mutual understanding among members of the organization, alleviating the tension of the members and improving teamwork. Through the analysis on The Cut, it can be seen that it has larger problems in its communication and cooperation among employees, organizational vitality, staff's work enthusiasm and commitment to work. The theory of organizational development can help it to solve problems in management to break through the bottleneck of development. The author as a practitioner brought forward the interventions for the  organization development of The Cut, including human resources management sources interventions, interpersonal interventions, strategic intervention, technostructural interventions. Through these four aspects of intervention measures, it can effectively help The Cut to improve employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction, and thus enhancing the financial income of The Cut to obtain the sustainable development potential for it.
 
References
Azma, F. and Mostafapour, M.A. (2012). Business intelligence as a key strategy for development organizations. Procedia Technology, 1, 102-106.
Breaugh, J. A. (2008). Employee recruitment: Current knowledge and important areas for future research. Human Resource Management Review, 18(3), 103-118.
Buchko, A. A., Buscher, C. and Buchko, K. J. (2017). Why do good employees stay in bad organizations? Business Horizons, 60(5), 729-739.
Gohil, S. and Deshpande, P. (2014). A framework to map a practice as organization development. Procedia Economics and Finance, 11, 218-229. 
Guillet, B. D. et al. (2013).  CEO duality and firm performance in the U.S. restaurant industry: Moderating role of restaurant type. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 33(6), 339-346.
Isaksson, K. and Johannson, G. (2003). Managing older employees after downsizing. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 19(1),1-15. 
Jogaratnam, G. (2017). How organizational culture influences market orientation and business performance in the restaurant industry. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31(6), 211-219.
Karanges, E. et al. (2015).The influence of internal communication on employee engagement: a pilot study. Public Relations Review, 41(1), 129-131.
Lee, C., Hallak, R. and Sardeshmukh, S. R. (2016). Innovation, entrepreneurship, and restaurant performance: A higher-order structural model. Tourism Management, 53(4), 215-228.
Li, J. and Yuan, B. (2017). Both angel and devil: The suppressing effect of transformational leadership on proactive employee’s career satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 65(8), 59-70. 
Men, L. R. (2011). How employee empowerment influences organization–employee relationship in China. Public Relations Review, 37(4), 435-437.
Phaneuf, J. E. et al. (2016). Personality and transformational leadership: The moderating effect of organizational context. Personality and Individual Differences, 102(11), 30-35.
Poulsen, S. and Ipsen, C. (2017). In times of change: How distance managers can ensure employees’ wellbeing and organizational performance. Safety Science, 100(12), 37-45.#p#分页标题#e#
Prabhu, V.P. (2011). Organizational development. Encyclopedia of Creativity, 197-201.
Sebastião, S. P., Zulato, G. and Trindade, A. D. (2017). Internal communication and organisational culture: the management interplay in the view of the Portuguese communication consultant. Public Relations Review, 43(4), 863-871.
Shatrevich, V. (2014). Industrial structures as competitive factor in organization development. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 110(24), 871-878. 
Shimoni, B. (2017). A sociological perspective to organization development. Organizational Dynamics, 46(3), 165-170.
Sukhu, A., Bilgihan, A. and Seo, S. (2017). Willingness to pay in negative restaurant service encounters. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 65(8), 11-19.
Verčič, A. T. and Vokić, N. P. (2017). Engaging employees through internal communication. Public Relations Review, 11(2), 210-219.
Wang, H. J., Demerouti, E. and Blanc, P. L. (2017). Transformational leadership, adaptability, and job crafting: The moderating role of organizational identification. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 100(6), 185-195.
Witek-Crabb, A. (2014). Business growth versus organizational development reflected in strategic management of polish small, medium and large enterprises. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150(15), 66-76.
Zorn, M. L. et al. (2017). Cure or curse: does downsizing increase the likelihood of bankruptcy? Journal of Business Research, 76(7), 24-33.
 


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