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爱尔兰语言与历史课程作业代写-The origins of the Irish language@Irish histo

时间:2012-03-21 11:22来源:留学作业网 作者:爱尔兰作业 点击:
爱尔兰语言与历史课程作业代写-The origins of the Irish language@Irish history The national education system and Ireland great famine

代写爱尔兰历史作业Irish COINS different, is not cast in head of state, hero, celebrities like the head, but the most familiar people chains seal animals: cows, horses, pigs, dogs, rabbit, chicken, fish, reflects the characteristics of animal husbandry and nations.

If invited to Ireland in their home, can take some flowers or chocolates. If you are invited to dinner, a bottle of wine, and a bunch of fresh flowers, some chocolate candy or cheese etc is very appropriate gift.

The Irish language (Gaeilge na hEireann), in English, also known as the Irish, Gaelic, Irish Gaelic or Erse (the vocabulary is borrow from the Scottish language), so in Chinese, the Irish language also has "gerd's words", "the Gaelic language", or "Ireland the Gaelic language" and other translation. The Irish language classification in language belongs to the indo-european Celtic puxi, and belong to the puxi bulietani language, welsh and Scottish Gaelic has quite a close relationship. Irish republic of Ireland is the official language, is also the official recognition that Northern Ireland regional language, use a 260000 population.

In the language scholars about the discussions of the native language movement, the most commonly mentioned two language is Hebrew and Irish. However, the former is usually regarded as one of the few successful native language movement, and the latter native language movement, is many scholars think is a failure (HuangXuanFan 1995177).

Irish letters

The Irish language is from the Latin alphabet letters, divided into new spelling method and the old spelling method.


New spelling method (Roman variant of the Latin script) :

Irish history

Irish ancestors of main belongs to Kerr, the group of tribal Gail and absorption, Norman, the Iberian and Anglo-Saxon elements. Iberia is the oldest person AiErLanDao residents, from the pyrenees peninsula. In the fourth century BC, Gail people from southern France and Spain to northern AiErLanDao (and some think this batch of Gail are from Scotland). They live in the local assimilated the Iberian people, and become the foundation of the Irish national (MuLi made 2000). Most historians believe that, in the year before the 7 th century or so, Gail people began to settle in the AiErLanDao, engaged in agriculture and livestock (DuKun 2000). Therefore, the Irish language with quite the long-term history.

The origins of the Irish language

Although AiErLanDao as ago already settled, however, and the Irish language related text record, but it has to wait for the 4 th century BC only appeared around. Existing on the Irish language the earliest record, is in something called "the han (Ogham)" special stone found through in these stone carving the words which, language scholars can find and original Irish related some clues (Wikipedia 2005 a; O 'Donnaile nd).

15 floor

In 432, the holy piper rick (St. Patrick) from continental Europe arrived in Ireland, also began to these Gail people into the process of christians. It is believed that the piper rick is introduced to Irish Roman letters of the first. Through these to Roman letters written text records, for example, Ireland missionaries in the scriptures of the poems written edge (among them with "the book of Kerr (Books of Kells) > most famous), we today to the early in the celts part of traditional oral literature, there is a certain degree of knowledge.

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In fact, if written from the point of view of literature, Irish literature history is quite long. Bradaigh (2000) think that can be found in Europe the earliest written literature, is in the 8 th century BC in classical Greek about written, and is in the first century BC in Latin written about work. And Western Europe there third written literature tradition, it is the Irish writing some oral literature works.

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The spread of the Irish language

In the Irish into Christian later, this group of people with the expansion of the footprint, they hand began to build new stronghold in southern Scotland, and their culture and language introduced to the original living in the region Peter (Picts), on the other hand, they also began to these Peter people into Christian. About in the sixth century BC around the middle, both in political, military, culture, language and other aspects, the Irish have been in Scotland has produced lots of influence. Until today, people in Scotland's use of "the Scottish Gaelic", we can find many and the Irish language similar vocabulary. In fact, the so-called "Scot" this vocabulary, at the beginning it was Roman used to call from Ireland to this group of Scotland invasion gaels-came, then they become is to describe "overseas Irish (Irish abroad)" a vocabulary (O 'Donnaile nd).


In the year 9 th century or so, the Irish language has been extended to much of the Scotland department, the north of England, and people island (the Isle of Man) and other regions. In 852, the Vikings, people from northern Europe (Vikings) invasion of Ireland, both parties and in 914 launched a time for almost 100 years of war. However, when the vikings in Dublin in 1014 near the defeat, the Irish language has become Ireland and Scotland's strong language, this also can almost be history of the development of the Irish language's highest peak.

18 building

The demise of the Irish language


The invasion of England

In 1169, to suffer from "the Norman Conquest (Norman Conquest)" the near England royal troops invaded Ireland, Irish and so on the Irish history for over 800 years the resistance of the movement. In 1171, England's king Henry officially became the Irish sovereign (Bradaigh 2000; DuKun 2000). These from England to the sea and the invaders, most are using the Norman French (Norman-French), a few is to use English. Because the number of them is not too much, so affected main area is near in Dublin, as for other areas of the in Ireland, the Irish language is still the main language used folk (O 'Donnaile nd).


However, with the deepening of the England man rule, at least in the political level, the English finally slowly replaced the Irish status. In 1367, England have passed the "gere Kenny act (Statutes of Kilkenny)", the main purpose of the bill is to be Anglo-Saxon change (anglicisation) Ireland, attempt to suppress the Irish language vigorously and habits (Bradaigh 2000). In 1601, Irish rebellion against British attempt failed again, in this one year later, the power of the Irish local nobles almost completely being dissolved away. In 1641, Irish again broke out resistance movement, this is a Catholic for UK protestants resistance as spindle. In 1649, Cromwell (Oliver Cromwell) British troops to suppress the uprising rate, the Irish finally in the essence in Britain completely rule.


In this case, roughly in the 1800 s, English in Ireland has turned into a real strong language. In AiErLanDao, almost anything in politics, society, economy, and culture of the power of people enjoy, the use of all are English, not the Irish language. Even so, the Irish language still have 4 million about the use of population, but most is to belong to the lower class farmers (O 'Donnaile nd).

The 19 th floor

The national education system and Ireland great famine

However, during the first half of the nineteenth century two events, but the Irish language almost completely from the Irish roots' except, one is introduced in 1831 to primary education system (primary education system), the other is broke out in 1845 of Irish great famine. In 1831, the British government began in Ireland set up the so-called "national education system", completely to English as the media of the education system of language. Although the Irish language is over half of the children of the family in the mother tongue, however, the Irish language but not allowed in the education system in appear. If students use Irish conversation, not only will be the teacher laughed at, humiliation, and can even be required in the neck hanging a "from now on and don't say Irish" warning card (Bradaigh 2000; ShiZheng feng 2002). Bradaigh (2000) such comments on the so-called "national school" : "that's not a 'national (national)' school, and complete is the Anglo-Saxon" tools.


In 1845, Irish faced for four years of famine, an estimated 1.5 million people have been killed, and more than 100 people have been forced to leave their homes and left America (DuKun 2000). The famine to the prospect of the Irish language by the enormous influence. On one hand, because the famine in the region is the most poor area of Ireland, and these areas are also right on the Irish language use area, therefore, the use of the essence of the Irish language population in a short time, a large number of reducing (Wikipedia 2005 a). On the other hand, the famine and almost destroyed the Irish people for their mother tongue of the faith, and after that, they also accept the idea in the ruler of ideology, the bottom will be his Irish and poor equate strokes, and will use English as a sign of progress (Bradaigh 2000).

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Irish Renaissance


The trend of times to Ireland and the rise of the middle class

Although is so the disadvantage, still have some of their own Irish language has a degree of insist, even in the middle of the nineteenth century gradually fostered the modern Irish nationalism. Cause the reason of this kind of phenomenon, is mainly due to the trend of times and Ireland the rise of the middle class. As ZhouHuiMin (1998) points out, "the nineteenth century, because of human economic activity than ever before, the content of different social structure change rapidly, cause of political demand also have greater change, the idea of for civil rights in all over Europe, the French revolution is up a example, deutsche region and England itself also have the workers and peasants movement, Ireland in natural can't survive."



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