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代写assignment:了解过去的假释制度

时间:2015-12-15 16:44来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:
了解过去的假释制度
 
为了让人们理解和了解过去,现在和未来缓刑和假释制度之间的联系,他们必须了解各自的历史。从缓刑的历史开始更容易,然后发展到假释的历史。同样重要的是,讨论当下的缓刑和假释是如何工作的,在未来缓刑和假释会发生什么事。这是在这个领域的中许多需要被处理的问题。
 
拉丁语中的表情、缓刑或probare意味着“证明或测试”。1841年,美国的制鞋家约翰奥古斯都提出了第一个对缓刑的观点,去法庭保释一个醉汉。这个罪犯被奥古斯都先生的监督释放,让他第一个指出缓刑监督官,罪犯被告知在判决三周时间之内回到法院。在此期间,关押的罪犯是奥古斯都,他清理他的外表和behavior.Mr先生。奥古斯都认为,滥用酒精者可以改变通过理解,善良,和持续的道德劝说,而不是信仰和监禁。这些信念基于他与华盛顿总禁欲社会;他们从酒精投了弃权票.
 
18年来,约翰·奥古斯都自愿作为缓刑监督官。他开始评估的任务明显缓刑期人员密切关注罪犯是否会被证明缓刑。的一些事情他缓刑寻找候选人的性格,年龄,影响(人、地点或事物)。后,第一个缓刑法令颁布1859年。缓刑的方向系统从一个状态变化到另一个,一些结合缓刑和假释.
 
假释,源自法国术语假释,意味着“给一个人的荣誉或承诺”.
 
In order for one to understand and learn about the past, present and future connections of the probation and parole system, they must learn about the history of both.It is easier to start with the history of probation and then progress into the history of parole.It is also important to discuss how probation and parole work in the present and how and what will happen to both probation and parole in the future.That is the issue that many going in to this field deal with.
 
In Latin expressions, probation or probare means "to prove or to test" (Probation, 1996).In 1841, the United States got its first view of probation when John Augustus, a boot-maker, went to court to bail out a inebriate.This criminal was released to the supervision of Mr. Augustus making him the first noted probation officer, the offender was told to return to court in three weeks time for sentencing.In the time that the offender was in the custody of Mr. Augustus he cleaned up his appearance and behavior.Mr. Augustus held that alcohol abusers could be changed through the use of understanding, kindness, and sustained moral suasion, not convictions and jail sentences.He based these beliefs on his connection with the Washington Total Abstinence Society; they abstained from alcohol (International, 2009).
 
For 18 years, John Augustus volunteered as a probation officer.He started the mission of evaluating the apparent probationers paying close attention to whether the offender would prove to do well on probation.Some of the things that he looked for in a probation candidate were the character, age, and influences (people, places or things).Following that, the first probation statute was enacted 1859.The direction of the probation system varies from one state to another, some combine probation and parole (International, 2009).
 
Parole, originating from the French term parole, means "to give one’s word of honor or promise"(Parole, 1996).Alexander Maconochie and Sir Walter Crofton is credited for establishing the early parole system.Maconochie was in charge of the English penal colony at Norfolk Island, off the coast of Australia and Crofton was the director of Ireland’s prisons.Maconochie was not in favor of the prison terms so he created a system for good conduct, labor and study.He used a practice known as the "mark system".With this system, prisoners advanced through stages of growing responsibility with the reward being release.In 1840, Maconochie was given the chance to use his new rewards system while he was the superintendent at the Norfolk penal colony.The criteria for the release of a prisoner was not time served but task completion.Maconochie and this system worked very well with the prisoners at Norfolk.He returned to England in 1844 where he pushed for the parole system to be used.In 1849, he tried to put into action the parole system when he was elected governor of the New Birmingham prison.He was met with hesitation because the others thought that his methods were too lenient.Maconochie was released from his position in 1851 (Moran, 1948).
 
In 1854, Sir Walter Crofton tried to put into practice Maconochie’s system within the Irish Prison system.Crofton believed that prison programs should be aimed more towards reformation.In order for this reformation to happen, Crofton thought that “tickets of leave” should be awarded only to the prisoners that showed a distinct accomplishment and had a positive attitude change.He also moved prisoners into intermediate prisons after a time in a strict imprisonment.When the prisoners were in the intermediate prisons they could then earn points that would build up.These points were given for work performance, behavior, and improvement of education.By earning enough marks, the prisoners could be given their tickets of leave and would be released on parole.Once on parole the new parolee was required to report to the police.The police would assist the parolees find jobs and monitored their activities.These ideas and changes that Crofton made to the Irish Prison System are attributed to the modern system of parole (Gibbons & Rosecrance, 2004).
 
The parole system was executed in the United States by Zebulon Brockway 1876, which was a two part system.This system was maintaining the prison population as well as preparing the prisoners for release.This system was carried out after he was elected as superintendent of a youth reformatory.At the time that the youth were admitted to the reformatory, they were classified into groups, which started as "second grade".To get to the next level, which is "first grade", an inmate had to have six months of good behavior.If there was any type of misbehavior from the inmate, they were moved back down to "third grade".From there, the inmate would have to work their way back up.An inmate would be released if they could maintain good behavior in the "first grade".This release, however, did not get them completely out of the system.From there, the inmate had to report to a jurisdiction of authorities for six months, on the first day of each month. The report was made to a volunteer guardian, which is where parole officers came from.When they reported in, the parolee had to provide the officer with their situation and all conduct (Brockway, 2006).
 
Brockway, Z. (2006). Fifty Years of Prison Service, 1912. New York: Kessinger Pub Co.
Gibbons, S., & Rosecrance, J. (2004). Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections in the United States. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
International, I. G. (2009). Probation: Webster’s Timeline History, 1293 – 2007. ICON Group International, Inc.
Moran, F. (1948). The Origins of Parole . New York: State of New York, Division of Parole.
Parole. (1996). Retrieved April 1, 2010
Probation. (1996). Retrieved April 1, 2010
 


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