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Behaviourism and Behaviour Management Assignment 行为主义与行为管理作业

时间:2017-06-28 12:28来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
Briefly outline Behaviourism. How does this theory aid in an understanding of disruptive behaviour, and what are the limitations of this approach?简要概述了行为主义。这个理论如何帮助人们理解破坏性行为,这种方法的局限性是什么?
 
行为主义是二十世纪早期的主要心理范式的特点。这是一种学习方法,它关注可观察和可量化的行为,并减少对心理过程的需求。知识被看作是一首曲目的行为基本上是被动的,对环境刺激的机械反应。为了描述这方面的知识,没有提到内部,心理过程是必要的,而不是说,了解一些事情,如果他们拥有适当的行为。
行为主义者认为,教育的目的是为学习者提供的具体的刺激相应的曲目。信息,对某些刺激在适当的行为的形式,从教师传递给学习者,学习描述为“一个新的行为或行为的修改收购由于教学、培训或辅导”。行为反应是通过一个有效的加固进度,分解成一系列的小任务材料使用钢筋,一直重复的材料,并提供正确的反应正强化。因此,教学方法包括诸如死记硬背,技能和训练,及回答问题的任务,难度逐渐增加,因为这些技术能够打破材料分成更小的部分,并允许学习发生所需要的一致重复。人们还认为,教学应该精心计划和系统,定期测试学生的行为,以监测他们的进步,并提供反馈。
 
Behaviourism 行为主义
Behaviourism was the primary psychological paradigm of the early twentieth century and is characterised by the work of Watson (1913) and Skinner (1976). It is an approach to learning that focuses on observable and quantifiable behaviour and discounts the need to refer to mental processes (Pritchard, 2009). Knowledge is seen as a repertoire of behaviours that are largely passive, mechanical responses to environmental stimuli (Wray, 2010). In order to describe this knowledge, no reference to internal, mental processes are needed, and instead, someone is said to understand something if they possess the appropriate repertoire of behaviours.
 
Behaviourists believe that the aim of education is to provide learners with the appropriate repertoire of responses to specific stimuli. Information, in the form of the appropriate behaviour for a certain stimulus, is transmitted from the teacher to the learner and learning is described as "the acquisition of a new behaviour or the modification of behaviour as a result of teaching, training or tutoring" (Woollard, 2010, p. 1). Behavioural responses are reinforced through the use of an effective reinforcement schedule which breaks down material into a sequence of small tasks, consistently repeats the material, and provides positive reinforcement to correct responses (Skinner, 1976).  As such, teaching methods includes techniques such as learning by rote, 'skill and drill', and question and answer tasks that gradually increase in difficulty, as these techniques are able to break down material into smaller pieces and allow for the consistent repetition needed for learning to take place (Wray, 2010). It is also believed that teaching should be carefully planned and systematic, regularly testing learners' behaviours in order to monitor their progress and provide feedback on their learning (Cox, 2004).
 
Behaviourism as a method of teaching and learning content has received considerable criticism in recent years and has generally fallen out of favour, not least because of its disregard of what goes on within a learner's head and its rejection of the importance of the mental processes the learner engages in (Bartlett and Burton, 2012). However, in the field of behaviour management, behaviourism is still an important influence and a number of behaviour management approaches and techniques draw from this field of psychology.
 
Behaviourist Behaviour Management 管理者的行为
From a behaviourist perspective, all behaviour is considered to be a repertoire of responses to a particular stimulus. Appropriate responses can be taught and learnt through the use of an effective reinforcement schedule. Therefore, from this perspective, disruptive behaviour is considered to be an undesirable response to a set of stimuli, and children can be taught more desirable responses through the use of reinforcement. Using this basic theory, behaviourism has had considerable influence on classroom management techniques and the encouragement of appropriate behaviours in the classroom. Using a behaviourist perspective, Merrett and Wheldall (2012, p. 19) recommend using a 'positive teaching' approach to establish the context for appropriate classroom behaviour, characterised by the following five basic principles:
 
It is concerned with the observable, i.e. behaviour;
It is assumed that behaviour is learned;
Learning involves change in behaviour;
Changes in behaviour depend mainly upon consequences;
Behaviours are also governed by the contexts in which they appear.
This approach emphasises how appropriate behaviour can be taught and learned through the use of behaviourist principles. The teacher firstly identifies the behaviours that they consider to be desirable and those that are considered to be disruptive and undesirable and then communicates these rules to the learners. The teacher then rewards the learners who display the desirable behaviour, thus changing behaviour through showing the learners the positive consequences of displaying appropriate behaviour (Pritchard, 2009). Behaviour management approaches such as 'assertive discipline' follow a similar pattern. In this case, a series of rules are established, there are rewards for those who follow the rules and consequences for those who do not, and these rewards and consequences are consistently applied (Canter and Canter, 1992). Current government guidelines for the management of behaviour in UK schools also adopt such an approach (DfE, 2011).
 
Behaviourist principles can also be used to help understand disruptive behaviour once it occurs. From a behaviourist perspective, the understanding of disruptive behaviour does not require any consideration of the learner's internal mental states or consciousness as it is believed that states such as belief, motivation, and satisfaction can be understood through an examination of the manifested behaviour (Woollard, 2010). Instead, an analysis of disruptive behaviour requires only an examination of the behaviour itself and the context in which the behaviour occurs with no reference to the learner's mental processes. Behaviour is examined in terms of what comes either before or after the manifested behaviour using a model known as the ABC model, where:
 
Antecedent: what happens in the context prior to the observable behaviour;
Behaviour: describes what actually happens in observable terms;
Consequences: what happens immediately afterwards
Roffey, 2006, p. 8
 
It is believed that behaviour can be changed by either changing the antecedence to the behaviour or the consequences of the behaviour. Hastings and Wheldall (1996) numerate a number of advantages of this model of understanding disruptive behaviour. They suggest that it focuses the teacher's attention on what the child actually does in the B aspect; the behaviour has to be systemically observed and recorded rather than simply labelling the behaviour under the general umbrella term of 'disruptive'. Furthermore, the teacher's attention is directed towards events within the classroom that s/he has influence over and thus, can change in order to effect change in the child's behaviour. Thirdly, it is suggested that the ABC approach emphasises that the child's behaviour takes place within a particular context and that their behaviour is both influenced by the environment and that their behaviour influences what happens next in the classroom. Finally, this approach provides links between the identification of undesirable behaviour, an explanation for why it occurs, and possible strategies for changing the behaviour.
 
Any attempt to change behaviour using this model should begin with the questions 'What triggered the behaviour?', in other words, the antecedence, and 'How is this behaviour being reinforced?', in other words, an examination of the consequences (Welsh Assembly, 2010). Antecedents to disruptive behaviour include both issues that the teachers can affect such as task difficulty, the learner's engagement with the topic, the classroom seating arrangement, and their relationship with the teacher, as well as issues that the teacher has little control over, for instance the effect of the learner's home environment on their learning. The ABC model suggests that teachers can use a number of preventative strategies to avoid disruptive behaviour by eliminating the antecedents to the unwanted behaviour, for example, the teacher can enforce rules through positive statements, they can give praise that is behaviour specific or they can change teaching to engage the interest of the learners (Gulliford and Miller, 2015).
 
However, despite the teacher's best efforts, it is highly likely that some children may still display disruptive behaviour on occasions. In this case, according to behaviourism, it is important to address the consequences of the behaviour as it may be the case that the undesirable behaviour is being reinforced by the reaction the learner provokes. For example, the child may behave badly in order to gain the teacher's attention as, for some children, any attention, even negative, is better than no attention. Every time the teacher reacts, they are reinforcing the child's disruptive behaviour. Alternatively, the child may be behaving badly in order to secure a reaction from their peers, and again, if this reaction is gained, the behaviour is being reinforced (Wray, 2010). Therefore, behaviourism advocates teaching learners new repertoires of behaviour and then reinforcing this good behaviour. Equally important, the undesirable behaviour should not be reinforced. Thus, reinforcement is the key aspect of this stage; however, it should be noted that, according to behaviourism, punishments and sanctions are not a part of the reinforcement schedule (Gulliford and Miller, 2015). Instead, positive reinforcement should be used as it is argued that pleasant experiences are more likely to help learners make the desired connections between specific stimuli and the appropriate response to that stimuli (Wray, 2010). Positive reinforcement can be given in three instances (LaVigna, 2000): a reward can be given when a learner chooses a preferred behaviour, known as differential reinforcement of an alternative response; a reward can be given when the learner chooses not to commit the undesirable behaviour, known as a differential reinforcement of the omission of a response; finally, a reward can be given when the learner displays a lower frequency of unwanted behaviour, known as a differential reinforcement of lower rates of responding. Disruptive and undesirable behaviour should be ignored as much as possible so as not to reinforce the behaviour (Wray, 2010).


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