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assignment范文:压力与沟通过程的关系

时间:2017-09-06 15:05来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
本文是留学生assignment范文,主要内容是以会计与审计公司的案例分析员工压力与沟通过程的关系。
当前时代的组织很容易受到压力环境的影响。最近的经济衰退使它更舒适地适应了这个组织的状况。以下是一个涉及“会计与审计”公司的案例,说明了这一点。该组织规模大,在短期内达到了很高的知名度。该组织依赖于各种层次的各种通信技术。有这样一种信念:省时省力。适合于员工周围环境的词语是:动态的、要求高的、高期望的、达到目标的、截止日期的。当然,它也以它提供的相对较高的货币补偿而闻名。
自最近以来,该组织一直在根据环境变化的需要改变工作政策。与此相平行,我们可以观察到退出该组织的雇员人数增多,许多人缺席或表现不佳。员工流动率的上升已经开始让高层管理层担心了。他们意识到关注这些问题的重要性,这些问题使他们的社会声誉和地位岌岌可危。
在这种情况下,人们可以猜测员工面临各种行为问题。但也值得考虑的是重视有效地管理它们。正如这一部分的第一行所暗示的,以下报告的主干将对雇员的压力水平进行分析,并将其与另一个问题联系起来,即。通信过程。这将通过定义和部署与组织行为相关的适当理论来完成。接下来将讨论可能的建议和结论,以有效地管理目前的局势。
 
An organisation of the current time is naturally exposed to a stress environment. The recent economic downturn has just made it more comfortable for accommodating such a condition in the organisation. This is illustrated through the following case involving a situation in an 'Accounting & Auditing' firm. The organisation is well reputed for its big size and to have achieved great heights in short period. The organisation depends on technology for all sorts of communication across all levels of hierarchy. There is a belief of saving time and efforts by doing so. The words that may suit the overall ambience surrounding the employees here are- being dynamic, demanding, high expectations, achieving targets, deadlines etc. This, like most other big organisations in this sector, has erratic working hours. Of course it is also known for the comparatively high monetary compensation it offers for the same.
 
Since recently, the organisation has been undergoing change in work policies according to the changing needs of the environment. Parallel to which, we can observe a rise in the number of employees quitting the organisation and many being absent or showing a poor performance. The increase in employee turnover has started to worry the top management. They realised the importance of giving attention to these issues which puts their social reputation and status at stake.
 
Under this situation, one can guess that the employees are exposed to diversified behavioural issues. But also to be considered is the rise of giving importance to managing them effectively. As the first line of this part hints, the backbone of the following report will analyse the case with respect to the stress levels of its employees and also relate it to one other issue viz. Communication process. This will be done by defining and deploying the appropriate theory with relation to the organisational behaviour. Following which, the possible recommendations and conclusions will be discussed to manage the current situation effectively.
 
Relationship between Stress and Communication process:
 
To begin with, one has to understand and identify whether the organisation, the employees in particular, are going through stressed situation. Stress can be defined as "a response, consequence of any action, situation or event that places special demands on a person; and all such actions/situations/events that places special demands are called Stressors" (Gibson, Ivancevich, Donnelly and Konopaske, 2006, p.199).
 
OUTCOMES:
 
Behavioural:
 
Satisfaction
Performance
Absenteeism
Turnover
Health care claims
Cognitive:
 
Poor decision making
Lack of concentration
Forgetfulness
Frustration
Physiological:
 
Increased blood pressure
High cholesterol
Coronary heart disease (CHD)
Harmful addictions
Stressors, Stress and Outcomes model:
 
STRESSORS:
 
Individual Level:
 
Role conflict
Role overload
Ambiguity in job description
Pace of change
Job uncertainty
Group Level:
 
Intra group conflict
Organisational Level:
Culture
Communication process
Change in policies
Lack of career opportunities
Non-work:
 
Relating few of the above to the current scenario:
 
Change in policies- fluctuating targets than the usual because of changing needs
Role conflicts- multiple level hierarchies; An individual handling varied projects at the same time may have to report to new/multiple managers leading to role conflicts
Role overload- closer deadlines, erratic working hours
Environmental changes- whether it is economic changes or technological advancements, the employees view it as a source of replacements. And feel insecure about layoffs & uncertain about their jobs
Communication- when it is ineffective, it leads to role ambiguity, intra group conflicts
The above list of stressors may increase/decrease according to the employees and the organisation. These need not be stressors to all. An individual in a demanding position may be affected by stress, while the other may not be though both belong to the same organisation. It depends on the individual's characteristics and perspectives. (Gibson et al, 2006). Wilson (2004) identifies these two types of individuals as "Type-A": sustained drive towards poorly defined goals, preoccupation with deadlines, competitiveness, desire for advancement and achievement and "Type-B": relaxed, unhurried and satisfied. Type-A individuals encounter with high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and other physiological outcomes compared to Type-B individuals. The actual issues of concern in the mentioned case are employees quitting the organisation, poor performance and absenteeism. And these can be traced to the outcomes in the above 'stress defining' model. All these confirm a stressed atmosphere prevailing in the organisation.
 
"Communication process becomes very important in organizations that deal with uncertainty, that are complex and that have a technology that does not permit easy routinization. The more an organisation is people and idea oriented, the more important communication process becomes" (Hall, 1999, p. 167). All the job related information is communicated to the subordinates by the managers. There is delegation of work running through all levels. Communication process is carried out by adopting various technological channels like Email, Fax, and Telecommunication etc.
 
The question to be answered at this point is- whether appropriate channel/medium is adopted? For example: The targets/goals/job description for the lower level employees is determined by the managers. And the same is being communicated to them through emails. Now, if the message is similar to what is done in the past then this is an appropriate channel. This way, the organisation will save time and efforts as they believe so. However, if the message relates to new responsibilities/project, the employee at the execution level may need more clarifications and may prefer personal/telecommunication channel. When the sender of the message (managers) fail to use the appropriate channel, the message often tend to get distorted leading to ambiguity among the employees about their role & responsibilities. This causes stress. Also, Wilson (2004) notes Hilpern's (2003) finding that excessive dependency on technology at work contributes to rising stress levels, referred as 'digital depression'. This implies that, an effective communication process in place will support a stress free environment. Consequentially improve the situation and performance of the employees and organisation.
 
Recommendations:
 
As we have discussed so far, it can be inferred that the outcomes of a stressed situation or an ineffective communication adversely affect the performance and life of the individual, thereby the organisation.
 
Facts:
 
According to national mental health association, the cost of depression is $43billion a year in medical bills, lost productivity, and absenteeism;
 
Depression is the seventh most common cause of adult deaths
 
(Gibson et al, 2006 noted Sharon Johnson's, "Depression: Dragging millions down" The New York Times magazine, October 29, 2000 pp39, 47)
 
It is estimated (Wilson, 2004) around 13.5 million working days a year being lost to companies in the UK because of stress, anxiety or depression of employees.
 
Therefore, it becomes very important to address these issues so as to improve the situation and save various costs to the organisation.


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