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Marketing Assignment:市场营销理论在实践中的应用

时间:2017-10-09 15:00来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
本文是留学生Marketing Assignment范文,主要内容是通过作者的公司在营销活动中体现市场营销理论在实践中的应用。
我们公司的主要营销工具是广告,但我们使用的是不同的直销、展览和网站。然而,数字营销只限于在游戏网站,虽然这是越来越受欢迎。数字营销通过批发商,2007年定义:“数字技术的应用,形成市场渠道(互联网、移动通信、互动电视、无线)通过满足和超越客户的需要比竞争对手更好地实现企业的目标。”数字营销几乎完全从游戏中失踪,这是仅限于网站。各种各样的网络理论研究的关系,是人与人之间,动物或东西。社会网络分析是学习在社会网络中发展的模式及其影响行为的一种重叠工具。数字营销渠道,如facebook、推特,Foursquare和Instagram在这方面是有用的,因为它们允许营销人员倾听消费者的言论,他们允许营销人员利用有影响力的用户传播信息的权力。代营销理论认为,消费者天生的同代人--定义为20年--有共同的态度和行为,因为共同的经历影响了他们的童年和形成自己的世界观。代际理论在数字营销的相关性主要是如何在每一代的沟通和在线营销人员可以到达的地方。消费者在游戏中的研究只限于顾客听到的地方,而不包括他们是谁(年龄、性别、教育等)。总的来说,游戏在传统营销渠道如直接营销和广告方面有很好的机会,但数字营销部分确实有限,这使得它不那么现实。
 
Introduction 简介
 
This report shows the different field of businesses and the methods that our company was using in SimVenture comparing with theories.
 
Marketing and Sales
 
Our company's main marketing tool was advertising but we were using different like direct marketing, exhibitions and our website. However, digital marketing is limited only to website in the game, although this is getting more popular these days (Pittsburgh Post-Gazzette, 2006). Digital marketing defined by Jobber, 2007: "The application of digital technologies that form channels to market (the Internet, mobile communications, interactive television and wireless) to achieve corporate goal through meeting and exceeding customer need better than the competition." Digital marketing is almost completely missing from the game, it is only limited to website. Network theory studies relationships of all sorts, whether between people, animals or things. Social network analysis is an overlapping tool for learning about patterns that develop within social networks and how they influence behaviour. Digital marketing channels such as Facebook, Twitter, Foursquare and Instagram are useful in this regard, as they allow marketers to listen to what consumers are saying, and they allow marketers to leverage the power of influential users to spread messages throughout their networks (Harvard Business Review, 2006.). Generational marketing theory holds that consumers born of the same generation -- defined as a 20-year period -- have common attitudes and behaviours because of shared experiences that influenced their childhoods and shaped their views of the world. The relevance of generational theory to digital marketing is primarily in the ways in which each generation communicates and the online places where marketers can reach them (Zickuhr, 2010.). The customer research in the game is only limited to where the customers heard about but nothing who they are (age, gender, education, etc.). All in all the game had good opportunities in traditional marketing channels like direct marketing and advertisement but digital marketing part is really limited which makes it less realistic.
 
Operations 操作
 
Efficient operations management is a key element to make a company successful. Without supply network a company cannot exist. A supply network perspective means setting an operation in the context of all the other operations with which it interact some of which are its suppliers and its customers. Materials, parts, other information, ideas and network of customer-supplier relationships formed by all these operations (Slack, Chambers, Johnston, 2004.). The supply network view can also help in decision making about the design. The design activity in operations has one overriding objective: to provide products, services and processes which will satisfy the operation's customers. During the game our company used 'Just in time' method for the production because if there was more order then our organisation was able to produce then we contracted some out when it was financially possible. Furthermore, in the meanwhile of last year in the game, all of our production was contracted out because the four employees weren't enough to build the product and to handle other task that were essential to run the company at the same time. High dependency theory is one of the explanation of the 'Just in Time' approach to operations management. With high inventories insulating each stage in the production process, the dependency of the stages on one another was low. Take away the inventory and heir mutual dependency increases. The 'Just in Time' practice of empowering 'shopfloor' staff makes the organisation dependent on their actions (Slack, Chambers, Johnston, 2004.). However, this theory perfectly suits with SimVenture, thus it is realistically show the opportunities and limitations of 'Just in Time' delivery and production because in the first year when financially it was not a possibility to contract out some of the production we bumped into some limitations according to the 'Just in Time' manufacture technique.
 
Finance 财务
 
All investments carry with them some degree of risk. In the financial world, individuals, professional money managers, financial institutions, and many others encounter and must deal with risk. Investors can either accept or try to mitigate the risk in investment decision-making (Baker & Filbeck, 2015.).
 
However, the game is limited to only two choice of grants and family and bank loans. Decision parameters are: amount, period, interest rate. The game also offers an opportunity to set bank overdraft which can be really useful especially in the beginning of the game when the company has to buy the products' component and has to wait until the clients paying. The payback period can be up to 3 months.
 
According to Deakins and Freel (2009) our company's stage of finance is at young stage, due to we paid back our only £3000 loan from friends and family, although the company is owed 100% by the founders. Business angels capital, internet crowd funding
 
Michael Jensen and William Meckling, in ‘Theory of the firm: management behavior, agency costs and ownership structure’ (1976), note that ‘agency costs arise in any situation involving cooperative effort’ and that, as the firm is essentially ‘a nexus for a set of contracting relationships among individuals’, agency problems are endemic to it. Their analysis focuses on how agency problems can help to explain such questions as:
 
The degree to which a firm is financed by debt or equity;
Why firms in some industries are usually owner-operated;
Why firms would voluntarily supply shareholders and lenders with accounting reports and have them independently audited.
The last point is of most interest for our purposes. Essentially, firms will voluntarily provide shareholders and lenders with independently audited accounting reports because this reduces the monitoring costs associated with contractual relationships with these parties. In the game there is opportunity to make the finance reports in house or to ask an agency to do it for extra costs per each months.
 
Setting up the right price for the product is a key element for running a successful company. Our gross profit per unit is 43% of the whole price which is around average in this industry (Stefan, 2015.).
 
Organisation and growth 组织和生长
 
"SimVenture is a game which is run on a managerialist philosophy not an enterprising one" (Grant, 2015.). Theories of the small business life cycle have been heavily criticised in recent years for being reductionist and ‘speculatively normative’, relying on formalistic, deductive approaches rather than inductive heuristic methods (Gibb and Davies, 1990). In particular, it is the ‘deterministic assumption that all firms grow through a series of predictable series of preordained stages’ (Merz et al, 1994; p49). Small business growth is characterised by a number of predictable, discrete and consistent stages (Churchill and Lewis, 1983; Hanks et al., 1994; Kazanjian, 1988; Steinmetz, 1969). These stages are sequential in nature and occur as a hierarchical progression not easily reversed (Dodge and Robbins, 1992; Quinn and Cameron, 1983). An important aspect of theorising on the organisational life cycle is that many stage models of small business growth can be conceptualised as ‘metamorphosis’ models (d'Amboise and Muldowney, 1988; Kazanjian, 1988), where the fundamental transition from one stage of growth to another requires considerable change. However, in SimVenture when the firm moved to a bigger office and purchased new equipment for the company the efficiency of the company have been developed to a higher level that also meant that the company is growing. The life cycle literature emphasises that such periodic crises have an important role to play in the development of both the organisation and the individual. (Dodge and Robbins, 1992.). Hiring more employees and train them to be professional in different business fields is also a great method to rise the organisation to a higher level. Upon interpretation, it seems that entrepreneurs have to develop new behaviours and learn to think in radically different ways as a result of managing developmental crises (Greiner, 1972). As Greiner (1972) states, ‘these periods of tension provide the pressure, ideas, and awareness that afford a platform for change and the introduction of new practices’ . From this viewpoint, a key assumption behind life cycle theorising is that for a small business to grow, the owner-manager must adapt and modify their perceptions and actions as a result of these discontinuous events in order to facilitate organisational growth. For instance, in the game when the company was financially able to advertise not only in printed media but use the more expensive although more efficient TV and Radio as a marketing channel, the number of orders rising exponentially. That caused profit and sales growth which helped to increment the firm to a higher level as it displayed in the Figure 1.1 below.


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