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留学生assignment范文:儿童家庭互动的影响(2)

时间:2017-12-12 15:41来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
The case of Eaton and his mother, Kerry, could be seen as a classic example of the maternal deprivation theory. While Kerry is present physically, her own self-admitted lack of motivation and uninvolv
 
The case of Eaton and his mother, Kerry, could be seen as a classic example of the maternal deprivation theory. While Kerry is present physically, her own self-admitted lack of motivation and uninvolved attitude is not adequate to foster that close relationship with her second son. As highlighted by Bowlby and later his close colleague, Mary Ainsworth (1962), Eaton could be at risk of having some mental problems in the future, if a timely and effective intervention is not implemented.
 
The long-term effects of poor child-family interactions
The consequences of the poor maternal and possibly paternal interaction which Eaton is accustomed to cannot be overemphasised. In a recent study using a conceptual model derived from the attachment theory, it was shown that attachment anxiety and low empathy significantly increases the odds of child molester status (Woods and Riggs, 2008). Furthermore, attachment insecurity in childhood is linked to externalizing behaviour and higher and stable patterns of depressive behaviour at the adolscence stage (Allen et al, 2007).
 
Also, conversely, avoidance of closeness in depressed mothers is implicated in the development of internalizing symptoms in their children, because individuals who are avoidant of closeness, logically, are poor care givers (Whiffen et al, 2005). Research also shows that infants and toddlers of depressed mothers are at increased risk of developing attachment insecurity and behavioural difficulties than offspring of nondisordered mothers (Cicchetti et al, 1998).
 
Observing the effects of maternal depression on social cognition and behaviour in parent-child interactions, Lovejoy (2007) depressed mothers, as a group, exhibited more negative behaviour. Furthermore, maternal depression was found to be associated with negative parent-child interactions and more negative, albeit fairly accurate, perceptions of child behaviour. This factor could be a major implicating factor in the apparent poor development that Eaton shows.
 
An older study by Seiner and Gelfand (1995) showed that enacted maternal withdrawal and depression led to toddlers physically withdrawing from their mothers, making more negative physical bids for attention and generally becoming unfocused and negative, displaying their distress in a developmentally appropriate manner. In addition, the children made no attempt to comfort their mothers; this can be related to Eaton's unsympathetic reaction to his mother's apparent distress in the video.
 
There are numerous other studies in the literature that explore the negative impact of poor interaction between child and mother (or care giver). There is a clear association between attachment and maternal depression, and the development of the recipient child.
 
Recently, Vieten and Astin (2008) evaluated the effectiveness of an eight-week mindfulness-based intervention during pregnancy on prenatal stress and mood. Their findings demonstrate that mothers who received this intervention showed significantly reduced anxiety and negative effect during the third trimester in comparison to those who did not receive the intervention. It is well-documented that stress and negative mood during pregnancy increase the risk of poor childbirth outcomes and postnatal mood problems and may interfere with mother-infant attachment and child development. Accordingly, such interventions may be pivotal in supporting mothers in preparation for child delivery.
 
Conclusion 结论
In the course of research for this write-up, I have a gained a greater understanding of the attachment theory and the role of the “secure base” in molding a child's development. More importantly, I am now aware of the need to provide as much support to the mother as is expected for the newborn. This is especially the case for at-risk mothers. Partners and family members need to be a part of the support programme to ensure that mothers receive the care and security they need in order to effectively carry out their newly acquired duties.


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