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时间:2015-12-07 10:17来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网 点击:
An inevitable quantity of inhabitants
Asia is such a large continent and with such a large mass of land comes an inevitable quantity of inhabitants. Where there is human cohabitation, you will also find the human instinct known as an opinion. Our opinions are what separate us from the next person; our opinion can be the foundation of our existence. China, which is a country within Asia has a sum just over 1.3 billion people (1,330,044,605 as of mid-2008), China is the world's largest and most populous country. As the world's population is approximately 6.7 billion, China represents a full 20% of the world's population so one in every five people on the planet is a resident of China.
From the hinterlands of the north, to the lush jungles in the south, from the mountains of Taiwan in the east, to the top of the world in the west, China serves as home to 56 official ethnic groups. The largest group, the Han, make up over 92% of China's vast population, and it is the elements of Han civilization that world considers “Chinese culture.” Yet, the 55 ethnic minorities, nestled away on China's vast frontiers, maintain their own rich traditions and customs, and all are part of Chinese culture. How can you become recognized as a nationality? "Stalin said or meant to say by his criteria of common language, territory, economy, and psychological characteristics or sentiments" (Diamond (1995) p.92)
This paper focuses on the Uygur minorities from the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China and the peoples of the Zhuang ethnic group who mostly live in the Guangxi Autonomous Region in southern China, in comparison to the immense Han culture. I chose the Uygur culture and the Zhuang culture mostly because they are two of the larger recognized nationalities. I figured to have such a large population will follow a greater foundation of support. These two groups hail from two different locations in China and I am determined to show you just how different they are from each other, including the differences from the much more popular Han culture. The most import idea is to understand each cultures ethnic mark.
一卷历史,一切都有开始-A wrap of history, everything has a beginning.
The Uygur are a Turkic people who ran a major empire on what is now Mongolia from 744 to 840. The Uygur converted to Islam over several centuries. The history of the Uygur can be traced back as far as the Huihe of the Tang dynasty. Though the ethnic designation “Uygur” for this people group came into modern usage in the early 20th century, their beginnings reach back to the founding of a Uygur Empire on the Mongolian steppe in the 8th century. This empire was centered at Karabalghasun on the Orkhon River and lasted until 840 A.D. when the Kirghiz conquered it. The majority of Uygurs migrated westward where they settled in scattered oases surrounding the Tarim Basin. Between the tenth and eighteenth centuries, the Chaghatai Mongols ruled the Xinjiang area and many Uygurs became administrators and scribes. In 1754 the Qing Dynasty forces defeated the Mongol overlords and in 1884 Xinjiang was declared a province of China. After the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1910 a Uighur republic of East Turkestan was briefly set up around the Ili area. This was crushed by the Communist forces in 1949 and led to the present state of Xinjiang's incorporation into the People's Republic of China.
The Zhuang are of Tai origin, a people who migrated south from central China roughly 5000 years ago. The Zhuang settled in what is now Guangxi, while other Tai peoples continued to migrate South to create the Lao, Thai and Shan peoples of Indochina. It is suggested the Tai peoples migrated for food purposes, as the culture developed a unique irrigation system which was useful for growing Rice. As the soil was terrible for this purpose in Central China, the Tai sought out more fertile plains.
The Zhuang failed to record their history until the Tung (Eastern) Chou dynasty (475-221 bc) of China. The Han Chinese referred to the area as Pai-Yueh (the Hundred Yueh - referring to the aborigines of southern China). Eastern Guangxi was conquered by the Han people under the Ch'in Dynasty in 214 bc. The Hans, to reform the area, built the Ling Canal to link the Hsiang and Kuei rivers and form a North-South waterway. An independent state known as Nan Yueh (Southern Yueh) around Canton, China|Canton was created by General Chao T'o when the Ch'in Dynasty collapsed. This Kingdom was supported by the Zhuang until its collapse in 111 bc. The Han Dynasty (206 bc-220 ad) thought the Zhuang culture unproductive, so they reduced local authority and consolidated their authority with Military posts at Kuei-lin, Wu-chou, and Yu-lin.
The Han Chinese are the majority ethnic group in China, making up an estimated 92% of the population. They are the largest single ethnic group in the world. The Han name derives from the Han Dynasty, during which many different tribes in China began joining along commonalities. It was the model for all future dynasties. The empire expanded considerably to the point that it rivaled the Roman Empire. Allegations of Han chauvinism are also common among China's Minority groups. Some Han resent the ethnic minorities of China, who are seen as having special privileges due to their race.
独特的方法-Ways of being unique
These groups are protected under China's constitution, guaranteed equal rights, and entitled to special privileges intended to help promote economic and cultural development. Some of these privileges include exemption from the One Child Policy, expanded rights to govern in “ethnic autonomous areas,” economic aid, and special consideration when applying for certain jobs and to certain universities. China officially guarantees minorities the freedom of religion. However, the realities of this freedom are the subject of intense debate, both within China and internationally. The exact definitions of the 55 groups are also controversial. In addition to the estimated 730,000 people in “undistinguished ethnic groups,” groups that have not yet been officially recognized, there are many who have been include in existing groups who deny their classification.
The Uygurs were originally animists. Before they migrated to the Tarim Basin they had come in contact with Manichaeans and adopted their faith. While in the Tarim Basin they encountered Buddhism and many of them adopted this religion-serves as an ethnic marker. Nestorian Christians had also established churches in this area by 631 A.D. and many Uygurs accepted this faith. Marco Polo reported in his travels through Kashgar in 1271 A.D. that several Nestorian churches still existed. The Uygurs of the western Tarim Basin oases began converting to Islam around 950 A.D. as a result of the Arab influences on the Turks around the Samarkand and Bukhara areas. It was not until the 15th century that the Uygurs of the eastern Tarim Basin (Turpan and Hami) converted wholeheartedly to Islam. On the other hand, the Zhuangs are polytheists, worshipping among other things giant rocks, old trees, high mountains, land, dragons, snakes, birds and ancestors. Taoism has also had a deep influence on the Zhuangs since the Tang Dynasty-serves as an ethnic marker. Confucianism is the main religion of the Han people. Many people also belong to various Christian denominations due to the influence of western culture.
Primarily, the Uygurs are identified by the language they speak and the area from which their ancestors came. The strong identity that the Uygurs have today is a relatively recent phenomenon. As pointed out, there was a time in their history when they adhered to several faiths, including Christianity. Up until the 1930s, the people of Xinjiang had been identified with the name of the town where they lived; the only over-arching ethnic designation used for them was “Turki” or “Turkistani.” The USSR revived the name “Uygur” to designate those emigrants from the Tarim Basin who did not fit under other catagories (e.g. Kazak, Kirgiz, and Uzbek).

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