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加拿大APA格式essay:Under the Trump Times’Canadian Environmental P

时间:2019-05-20 16:14:12 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:42
Abstracts 摘要
随着美国新总统特朗普的到来,他有关环境政策的实施带来了坏消息,这使他的邻国感到前所未有的压力和贸易伙伴。本文旨在从历史的角度,通过对美国政治经济环境保护、新政理念和加拿大环境保护的分析,阐述环境保护措施变化的影响。并据此提出了自己的看法,希望将加拿大的影响降到最低。
With the arrival of the new American President Trumpand his related environmental policy implementation of bad news, which made his neighbors felt unprecedented pressure and trade partner. This paper is designed to explain the influence of the change in the environmental protection measures from the angle of history, through the analysis of the political and economic environment protection of the United States the concept of the New Deal and the environmental protection in Canada. And accordingly put forward its own views; hope to minimize the effects of Canada.
1. New US Government’s Environmental Policy’s Review美国新政府环境政策回顾
特朗普需要推翻奥巴马政府过去八年在气候变化领域的努力。1月25日,路透社援引美国环境保护局(EPA)两名工作人员的话说,政府已下令该局在气候变化页面上争先删除该网站,可将环保局多年来对气候变化的工作变成水。
Trump needs to get to overthrow the Obama administration's efforts in the past eight years in the area of climate change. On January 25, Reuters quoted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) two staff said that the government has ordered the agency to Trump on the page of climate change, delete the web site can be environmental protection bureau for many years on the work of climate change into the water.
值得注意的是,美国环境保护署的创意总监任命特朗普·斯科特为普鲁伊特。俄克拉荷马州前司法部长长期以来一直反对奥巴马遏制气候变化的努力。特朗普上任后,白宫网站近期升级宣布,特朗普将推翻之前以奥巴马气候政策为核心的“气候行动计划”。
It is useful to observe that the U.S. environmental protection agency's creative directors appoint Trump Scott is Pruitt. Oklahoma, the former justice minister, has long opposed Mr. Obama's efforts to stem climate change. Trump took office, the recent upgrade of the White House website announced that Trump will overturn before Obama's climate policy at the core of "climate action plan".
Trump says climate change is a hoax and promised to withdraw from the United Nations on climate change agreement in Paris during the election. Although cut carbon emissions, Trump the government plans to increase oil production and restore the coal industry in the United States. These plans are criticized and against environmental agencies.
特朗普说,气候变化是一个骗局,并承诺在选举期间退出在巴黎举行的联合国气候变化协议。虽然减少了碳排放,但特朗普政府计划增加石油产量,恢复美国的煤炭工业。这些计划受到了批评,并对环境机构提出了反对。
Public statement and action plan, the New York real estate developer and reality TV star had orders to give up the Obama administration's climate change policy, and cancel the payment at the UN climate change programmers to revive the fossil fuel industry. In addition, Trump also hinted that he may close the U.S. environmental protection agency.
公共声明和行动计划,纽约房地产开发商和真人秀明星接到命令,放弃奥巴马政府的气候变化政策,取消联合国气候变化规划署的付款,以振兴化石燃料行业。此外,特朗普还暗示,他可能会关闭美国环境保护署。
2. Canadian Environmental Policy’s background加拿大环境政策背景
The Canadian government has always paid great attention to environmental protection, and Pierre Trump period (1968-1984) is the age of modern ecological history in Canada. Thoreau's environmental policy has a wide range of international and domestic background. Learn the history of Canada Trump period of ecological policy, ecological policy is the most effective way, to reflect the environment and environmental diplomacy in Canada and its role in the global environmental movement. From the point of view of marital, Trump government has made considerable progress in environmental policies, regulations and policies.
After the establishment of the federal environment in 1971, the provincial environmental protection agencies are working. The federal and provincial environmental protection department is now one of the most vital institutions in Canada. From 1968 to 1975, Trudeau government also issued a series of environmental protection laws and regulations, and had a legal basis for environmental protection and environmental governance.
In addition, the formation of the environmental assessment review process during this period, not only for the ongoing environmental assessment mechanism provides a reference, but also makes a profound impact on future generations. Trudeau government not only committed to the policy construction, but also places great importance on the policy implementation and supervision (Canada's Action on Climate Change Action, 2016).The typical example of water quality control, acid rain pollution prevention and control of toxic chemicals, and so on, according to the successful institutionalization of Canada's environmental policy.
From the global perspective, a Canadian transnational environmental diplomacy during this period has also made remarkable achievements. In 1970, Canada's foreign ministry issued a white paper on Canadian foreign policy, to clear the six major national interests, is the basis for Canadian external policy.
Environmental protection is one of the important part of Canada's a goal, to create a "fair society", as an active participant in Canada, and even leaders such as international conference in Stockholm in 1972 human environment conference and 1972 international conference on the law of the sea, or in dealing with international environmental problems, such as the destruction of the ozone layer and the harm of organic pollutants Trudeau government's environment policy not only has paved the way for the Canadian modern environmental policy, it has a pioneering role in environmental protection in Canada, and there is a very important historical position in the world environmental protection movement.
3. Current environmental policy of Canada
According to mike bean Gord, Ontario, the current chairman of the climate alliance (OCC), we found that now in Ontario environmental activities in an orderly manner (climate changeOntario, 2015).Include setting up a panel of experts in adapting to climate change, strengthen exchanges and cooperation with partner universities and promoting city innovative energy projects (Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2016). Specific work has established the climate summit of the Americas to sign, climate change strategy, the conference of the parties (Paris), green investment fund, mitigate climate change and low carbon economic activity and climate change action plan (Gordon McBean provides a brief overview of Ontario and Canada’sdevelopment of, 2016).
At the same time, Canadian, from Ontario, is also a member of the Paris agreement; create the four key areas to reduce the occurrence of disasters: restore the post-disaster reconstruction, disaster recovery, recovery and reconstruction. Canada will continue to support the exceptional global priorities, especially in developing states. The Canadian government is aware of the importance of environmental protection cooperation between enterprises actively encourage enterprises to develop the cooperation with the worldwide market. As a rapid growth in the industry environment, we need to constantly develop new technology, these innovative technologies applied to products and services, in order to increase their competitiveness. To this end, the Canadian government introduced a number of plans;promote the development of their environmental protection enterprises. The more influential project: Industrial Research and Development Program (I.R.A.P.), Canada's national research council launched a long-term plan. The goal is to give financial and technical assistance to small and medium-sized enterprise environmental protection, to help them reduce financial risks and to make them learn about and promote new technologies. Environment TechnologyCertificationSheme (E.T.V.) is jointly launched by environment Canada, the industry in 1997.Its goal is to show of creative technologies, products and services of private environmental protection enterprises, promote the enterprises into the global and domestic market. Canada’s Technical Cooperation Program (T.P.C.) is an investment plan by the Canadian industry. Aimed at supporting environmental protection enterprises to decrease risk, speed up the industrialization of modern technology. That is why Canada is to ease the transition plan, climate and local capacity building and intelligent agriculture climate resilience abroad (Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2016).
In order to improve the ability to cope with climate change, the government of Canada has conducted a series of process at the national level of climate change. At the 22nd conference of the parties, for example, the Canadian government carried on the thorough discussion to reduce the helpful suggestions and release of greenhouse gases. Promoting and encourage individuals to become involved in environmental protection activities (Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2016).
There is no denying the fact that Canada's contribution in the field of environmental protection is huge. However, this may lead to short-term benefits. In accordance with the announcement issued by the state, March 7 (2016), in response to climate change, the federal government intends to modify the existing environmental policy and improve the environmental threshold, it will have a negative impact on some foreign investment projects.#p#分页标题#e#
4. Canada Trump’s Environmental Policy’s Impact
On November 12, 2016, sciences Friday impurities interview Trump the impact of environmental policy in the United States and Canada. It can be seen that the long-term effects of Trump's election cannot be ignored. Last year, the international community, including the United States, to achieve "Paris climate agreement" to fight climate change, the Trump and a newly elected president promised to withdraw from the agreement. This section will explain and analyze correctly the likely influence of Trump's election. The United States and Canada entered into an agreement on climate change, and ultimately achieve. Offered his opinion and response procedures.
Do people really don't know what will do Trump, almost every day he is changing his position."Paris climate agreement" is a huge change. Trump will attempt to exit this agreement should be no suspense. However, he couldn't quite directly, because the agreement at the time of design considering the happening of this kind of situation. So only need to Trump the commitments under the agreement to refrain from.
People know that President Obama using clean energy initiative is the first time that federal emission reduction measures to cut carbon dioxide emissions from power plants. And Trump says he will use of coal as an energy recycling. This is clearly in order to achieve their political purposes. In other words, in order to better advance of domestic fossil fuel (especially gas resources), he must be in the above design break the barrier of the existing familial conditions.
Close relatives in the United States, Canada's economic environment have been struck by the United States. Is widely expected, was elected President of the United States in office Trump, global trade friction will increase dramatically, and instability of foreign trade and environment will be the first to influence the economy in Canada. The United States is Canada's largest trading partner; there is no doubt that the environmental policy will be a fundamental change in the supply and demand of domestic enterprises. And this change will soon spread to his neighbor, Canada. Compared to Trump the requirement of $25 billion in the United States and build a wall along the Mexican border, the United States environmental protection measures will also be developed between the United States and Canada another intangible economy.
In addition, the new Canadian government emphasis on technological innovation, but now he seems to lack the potential, the first reason is that Canada's environment need to improve innovation; Another reason is that, under the influence of the United States, Canada, once the innovation project, it will immediately buy the United States (A, 1985).So will eventually lead to the lack of soft power in Canada. This will lead in Canada to fiscal impact.
Canada is under a wealth of property and coal and other energy sources, the environmental policy will directly accelerate the need for energy companies, and Canada's corresponding industry there will be a sizable wait-and-see attitude (Christine Rivard, 2014).Through the analysis of the recent international crude oil market, the overall balance of political, economic and other factors, although Canada showed the desire of oil and gas exports outside the U.S. intentions, it is just because the United States in the future is difficult to digest large-scale oil and gas production in Canada, Canada's strategy. At present, the honest work by Canada is still promoting export channels in the United States. So even if the shale oil and gas production under the condition of the explosive growth in the United States, Canada's oil and gas resources will be a key priority to meet the needs of North America.
U.S. imports of crude oil in the future will continue to increase, the proportion of American power in the gulf of Mexico will continue to be a day, 1 million tons of oil sands, the rest of the western Canadian oil sands will flow to the Asia Pacific and the eastern part of Canada (Environment and Security in Arctic Waters: A Canadian Perspective, 1999).Currently, Canada has four crude oil pipeline constructions and construction. Pipeline construction according to the head, followed by the Asia-pacific region, promotes the eastern Canada. Resulting from the lack of diversified export channels, Canada's crude oil resources will be inevitably from the sale.
Nonetheless, some people think that Trump would not have a significant effect on the economy. The United States and Canada are under a close relative of a highly integrated, economic complementarily; add oil almost all sold to the United States, 60 or seventy years of import and export trade and the United States (Noble, 2008). Even after the Trump took office, the rules of trade between the two countries have changed; will not have a significant impact on the economy.
At the same time, other ace policy, under the influence of mixing Canada day. Trump signed soon after signed the trans-pacific strategic Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) document. Trade agreements involving 12 countries in the Pacific Rim, designed to reduce barriers to deal, promote the circulation of commodities between the countries. The negotiating process is quite complicated; all the countries have in 2015 as part of the same. Therefore, Trump was elected chairman of the United States, the United States relies heavily on foreign trade industry in Canada is probably not a good thing (Boiral, 2014).
As we all know, the Keystone XL oil pipeline is energy project cooperation between the United States and Canada. After the new president took office, is likely to restart the Keystone XL oil pipeline project in order to increase the chances of employment. If this can build a pipeline, crude oil from Alberta, Canada, will be precisely sent to refineries in the American south. In Canada, the Keystone XL oil pipeline can be translated to Alberta’s economy. However, the large multinational oil pipeline project will no doubt bring abundant domestic funds and work in Canada.
However, when more than activities, expressed opposition to the north American free trade agreement, is able to be known as the worst of the trade agreement. Trump, after taking office, may put forward modify agreement. So the day of Canada will not be calm.
5. Response’s of Canada
Despite the fact that, the US government has changed the previous ecological requirements and the Canadian government should be in the following areas in order to achieve better social development. The impact of the change aims to reduce our environmental policy.
Improving the structure of the environmental management and environmental protection laws and regulations, at present, the ecological management of the government of Canada has four institutions: the federal government, the provincial government, municipal government, district government (or watershed management), respectively, and the administrative department of environmental protection (Don, 2005).Clear the responsibilities between the government departments at all levels, the fund is given by the government. Ontario, in addition to in addition to the environmental protection departments at the provincial level, has the environment commissioner, the commissioner appointed by provincial council (Boiral, 2014), on the basis of the previous work, the Canadian government should introduce more environmental protection laws, promote the development of local and national environmental protection, so that Canada can have a more lasting competitiveness.
Focus on ecological short term in a more prominent position, with a high degree of consensus, high degree of vigilance, a high degree of consciousness, make the ecological and environmental protection work, focus, pay close attention to the source, precision control pollution, protect the priority to take full responsibility, innovation, win the ecological protection and environmental governance.
(2) Readjust the Industrial Structure
The traditional view is that Canada only abounding in wheat, meat, oil, natural gas energy products, livestock products, lumber, pulp and forest products and minerals. The economy is primarily the production of raw materials and primary products. The past is, of course, it is, but in the past decade, further changes have occurred in Canada's fiscal structure. High value-added industrial products and a growing share of the high-tech products in Canada's economy. Canada’s industrial structure is a typical type of developed countries. The second industry as the leading factor, second and third industry extraordinary proportion of the proportion of primary industry is fairly low.
Canada's economy also changing knowledge economy, this basically is the trend of the synchronization with the United States, is the change of employment structure, and the corresponding change in the employment services (including social services, business and personal service) services now account for about two-thirds of Canada's workforce. The numerous lakes region of Canada is paid to the brink of the eastern United States manufacturing center. In fact that is the industrial garden. Machinery manufacturing, steel, oil refining, paper and other industrial department is the most improved, non-ferrous metal smelting, wood processing, chemical, food, textile, aluminum, and aircraft manufacturing.
In order to get rid of the influence of the environmental policy, the most should do is to speed up the pace of economic restructuring, the development of science and technology, speed up the development of service industry, the introduction of foreign investment in an all-round way. After all, Canada's foreign economy accounts for a high proportion of gross domestic product (GDP).(1) provide a more stable business environment;(2) increase the government support policy;(3) training high quality, skilled workers;(4) provide a more competitive labor (4) to provide a more competitive business environment;(5) provide abundant raw materials and advanced and efficient infrastructure.#p#分页标题#e#
 
References
A, B. (1985).Economic Impact of Acid Deposition in the Canadian Aquatic Sector.Acid Deposition: Environmental, Economic, and Policy Issues.
Boiral, O. (2014). Environmental Leadership and Consciousness Development: A Case Study Among Canadian SMEs .Journal of Business.
Canada’s Action on Climate Change Action. (2016). Retrieved from Canada’s Action on Climate Change Action
Christine Rivard, D. L. (2014). An overview of Canadian shale gas production and environmental concerns.International Journal of Coal Geology, pp. 64-76.
Climate Change Ontario. (2015). Retrieved from Climate Change Ontario: 
Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2016). Retrieved from Environment and Climate Change Canada
Environment and Security in Arctic Waters: A Canadian Perspective. (1999). In G. Franklyn, National Security and International Environmental Cooperation in the Arctic the Case of the Northern Sea Route (pp. 103-133).
Gordon McBean provides a brief overview of Ontario and Canada’s development of. (2016). Retrieved from Gordon McBean provides a brief overview of Ontario and Canada’s development of: 
J, D. (2005). The economic causes and consequences of Canadian citizenship.ournal of International Migration and Integration, pp. 435-468.
Noble, B. F. (2008).Strategic Environmental Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in the Canadian Agricultural Sector.Environmental Management.


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