代写 会员中心 TAG标签
网站地图 RSS
英国essay澳洲essay 美国essay 加拿大essay MBA Essay Essay格式范文
返回首页

澳大利亚research essay:Almost a quarter of migrants who emigrate

时间:2019-07-05 11:04来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1.0 Introduction介绍 澳大利亚是一个由移民组成的国家。战后初期,澳大利亚政府制定了主要针对英国的大规模援助移民政策。符合条件的英国移民可以从英国和澳大利亚政府获得全部旅行费,每
1.0 Introduction介绍
澳大利亚是一个由移民组成的国家。战后初期,澳大利亚政府制定了主要针对英国的大规模援助移民政策。符合条件的英国移民可以从英国和澳大利亚政府获得全部旅行费,每个移民只需支付10英镑就可以移居澳大利亚,这部分移民被称为“10 poms”(Richardson,1957年;Richardson,1963年)。传统观念认为,白人,尤其是英国移民到澳大利亚的人,由于语言、文化等主流社会差异较小,适应上没有问题,因此英国移民的适应往往被忽视(Burnley,1978岁;然而,英国移民作为第二次世界大战后接受援助移居澳大利亚的“10人”也遭遇了挫折和困难。事实上,二战后,超过25%的英国移民返回澳大利亚(Hammerton和Thomson,2005年)。澳大利亚政府通过移民政策的援助吸引了英国移民到澳大利亚,他们当然希望移民能够在澳大利亚定居。1957年,高回报率促使澳大利亚联邦政府开始资助相关研究,如Appleyard、Ray和Segal(1988)进行的研究。本文旨在了解为什么1950年后移民到澳大利亚的“10个移民”中,有近四分之一的移民仍然选择在政府提供的有利条件下返回英国,社会文化差异很小。这项研究首先介绍了“10个POMS”返回英国的数据。然后,分析了这部分移民选择离开澳大利亚的原因,最后,对“10个POMS”返回英国的原因进行了深入分析。
Australia is a country composed by migrants. At the beginning of the postwar period, the Australian government has developed a large-scale aid migration policy aiming primarily at the British. The eligible British migrants could acquire a total of travel payments from both British and Australian governments, and each migrant only needed to pay ten pounds to move to Australia, this part of migrants were called ‘10 Poms’ (Richardson, 1957; Richardson, 1963). Traditional concept usually believes that white people, especially the British migrating to Australia will have no problem in adaptation because of less differences in language, culture and other mainstream social differences, so the adaptation of British migrants are often overlooked (Burnley, 1978; . However, British migrants as ‘10 Poms’ who accepted aid to move to Australia after the Second World War also suffered setbacks and difficulties. In fact, after the Second World War, more than 25% of British migrants to Australia returned to Britain (Hammerton and Thomson, 2005). The Australian government has attracted British migrants to Australia through assistance of migration policies, and they certainly hoped that the migrants would be able to settle in Australia. In 1957, the high return rate prompted the Australian federal government to start funding related research, such as the study carried out by Appleyard, Ray and Segal (1988). This essay aims to understand why almost a quarter of migrants who emigrated to Australia after 1950 as ‘10 Poms’ still chose to return to Britain under the favorable conditions provided by the government and such little social and cultural difference. This study first introduces the data of the ‘10 Poms’ returning to Britain. Then, it analyzes why this part of the migrants chose to leave Australia, and finally, in-depth analysis is carried out on the causes of the return of the ‘10 Poms’ returning to Britain.

2.0 Main body主体
2.1 Data of the ‘10 Poms’ returning to Britain“10个POMS”返回英国的数据
在Appleyard,Ray和Segal(1988)的研究中,他们发现20世纪50年代末移居澳大利亚的英国移民的回报率为29%。根据性别和婚姻状况,移民的回报率是不同的。按从低到高的顺序,男性移民澳大利亚后的结婚率为15%;已婚夫妇移民澳大利亚前的结婚率为18%;单身男性为20%;单身女性为37%。虽然联邦提名移民的回报率高于私人提名移民(Appleyard、Ray和Segal,1988年)。Hammerton和Thomson(2005)的研究指出,1959年至1964年间,已婚英国移民的回报率为24%,单身英国移民的回报率超过50%。Hammerton和Thomson(2005)发现,退休英国移民的回报率已经上升。很难计算返回移民的数据,因为这一数字是由移民年龄和移民类型的不同而区分的。”“再移民”也使数据统计更加困难。但肯定的是,“10个奥运会”返回英国的比例应该在25%左右,这仍然属于一个更高的水平。In Appleyard, Ray and Segal’s (1988) study, they showed that the return rate of British migrants who moved to Australia in the late 1950s was 29%. According to gender and marital status, the return rate of immigrants was different. According to the order of the rate from the lower to the higher, the rate of men who married after their immigration to Australia was 15%; the rate of those couples who have married before arriving in Australia was 18%; the rate of single males was 20%; the rate of single women was 37%. While the return rate of federal nominated migrants was higher than that of private nominations (Appleyard, Ray and Segal, 1988). Hammerton and Thomson’s (2005) study pointed out that between 1959 and 1964, the return rate of married British migrants was 24%, while the rate of single British migrants was more than 50%. Hammerton and Thomson (2005) found that the return rate of retired British migrants has risen. It is very difficult to count the data of returning migrants because this figure is differentiated by the difference in age of migrants and the type of migrants. "re-migrants" also make the data statistics more difficult. But certainly the proportion of the ‘10 Poms’ returning to Britain should be about 25%, which still belonged to a higher level.
2.2 Reasons for ‘10 Poms’ returning to Britain
2.2.1 Policy reasons
In the past, the long distance between Britain and Australia has largely ensured that most migrants would stay. It is possible to return to the UK as ship transport is gradually replaced by airplane and the increase in personal income. Moreover, the British are open to those who are born in their own country, even in today's circumstances when passport and visa are increasingly strict, people who were born in Britain will meet no obstacle in returning to Britain for settling. In addition, Australia does not impose restrictions on those who want to return to the United Kingdom, but asks if they return to United Kingdom within two years of migration, it is necessary to return the funds received by the assistance (Jupp, 2004).
2.2.2 National identity
Many migrants, after moving to Australia, always think that they are still British people, they do not think that Australia is their own home. This has also made many people choose to return home after they have settled in Australia for many years. Many of the ‘10 Poms’ grew up in World War II, they had a strong sense of identity for the United Kingdom. This is why they could not always take Australia as their own hometown (Hammerton and Thomson, 2005). 
2.2.3 Adaptation issues
Thinking of their hometown, the past lifestyle and the thoughts of their old friends is also an important reason for why many ‘10 Poms’ returned to Britain. Although the Australian society and the British society at the time had many similarities, but there were still many differences in climate, customs, environment, communication and other aspects, some of the migrants could not adapt to these differences, resulting in their thinking of their hometown, so after years of living in Australia, they still chose to return to the UK (Hammerton and Thomson, 2005).
2.2.4 Local public’s attitude towards them
Part of the Australian’s resistance and resentment to British migrants was also the reason why the ‘10 Poms’ returned to Britain. Some British migrants were surprised that Australia's official brochure showed that there was need of migrants in Australia, and the reality was that the Australian native's attitude to them was not always very friendly. For example, in the vicinity of the hostels where British migrants lived, there were often Australian locals holding sign of protest towards migrants and shouting some unfriendly slogans (Hammerton and Thomson, 2005).  Some local store owners often pretended to misunderstand what British migrants said, they also told the migrants, "If you can not understand, you should go to other places, your migrants should learn English" (Hammerton and Thomson, 2005).
2.2.5 Economic and career issues
In order to settle in Australia, ‘10 Poms’ British migrants tried to find work, because only work allowed they to afford their expenses in the new country, it also allowed them to have more contact with the local people to better integrate into the Australian society. Part of the migrants could find a job more smoothly, some employers have already provided them with a job (Appleyard, 2002; Wills, 2005). Another part of the migrants encountered some twists and turns in the process of looking for work, for instance, some British occupation qualifications could not be accepted by Australian. Another important element of settling in Australia was to have their own housing, which was the dream of most ‘10 Poms’ British migrants. However, due to the shortage of housing in Australia after World War II, this dream was not easy to be achieved. Part of the migrants was through unremitting efforts to finally achieve the goal, while the other part of the migrants could not always have enough money, their dream could not be realized. Not all ‘10 Poms’ British migrants in Australia had successfully settled in this new land, so some of the migrants chose to return to Britain (Hammerton and Thomson, 2005).


推荐内容
  • 英国作业
  • 新西兰作业
  • 爱尔兰作业
  • 美国作业
  • 加拿大作业
  • 英国essay
  • 澳洲essay
  • 美国essay
  • 加拿大essay
  • MBA Essay
  • Essay格式范文
  • 澳洲代写assignment
  • 代写英国assignment
  • 新西兰代写assignment
  • Assignment格式
  • 如何写assignment
  • 英国termpaper
  • 澳洲termpaper
  • 英国coursework代写
  • PEST分析法
  • literature review
  • Research Proposal
  • Reference格式
  • case study
  • presentation
  • report格式
  • Summary范文
  • common application
  • Personal Statement
  • Motivation Letter
  • Application Letter
  • recommendation letter