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澳大利亚essay样文:比较和批判性地评价马克思、韦伯和福柯关于权力和统治的概念

时间:2019-08-09 10:39来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
政治权力是政治学和政治哲学的研究课题。在唯物史观下,政治权力是工具形式和价值形式的有机统一。从工具形态上看,政治权力本质上表现为一种以强制力为基础的力量;从价值上看,政治
政治权力是政治学和政治哲学的研究课题。在唯物史观下,政治权力是工具形式和价值形式的有机统一。从工具形态上看,政治权力本质上表现为一种以强制力为基础的力量;从价值上看,政治权力本质上指向一种特定的阶级统治。在政治实践中,政治权力在工具维度和价值维度之间是锑的现象,这是否是因为作为工具的政治权力在形式上有效运行,作为政治权力在形式上的价值是否是统治阶级利益的根本这取决于政治权力将获得多少政治权力给另一方。政治权力只有建立在稳固的合法性基础上,才能转化为政治权威,从而获得权力相对人的自我认同和普遍服从。因此,政治权威的核心是获得对方的认同和共同服Political power is the research topic of political science and political philosophy. Under the view of historical materialism, political power is the organic unity of tool form and value form. In terms of instrumental form, political power is essentially manifested as a force based on coercive force; In terms of value, political power essentially points to a certain type of class rule. In political practice, political power in the tool dimension and value dimension is the antimony between the phenomenon, whether this is because as a tool of political power in the form of effective operation, as a political power in the form of value whether the ruling class interests, fundamentally depends on the political power will gain political power to and how much to the other party. Political power is only based on the solid legitimacy, which translates into political authority, so as to obtain the self-recognition and universal obedience of the power counterparts. Political authority at heart, therefore, is to obtain the other party in power of identity and common obey political power: the formation of the concept of political authority as the core content of political power.In addition, firstly, Karl Marx's conceptions of power and domination are introduced; secondly, Max Weber's conceptions of power and domination are explained; thirdly, Michel Foucault's conceptions of power and domination are indicated.
从的政治权力:政治权威概念的形成是政治权力的核心内容,此外,首先介绍了马克思的权力观和统治观。其次,阐述了马克斯·韦伯关于权力和支配的概念;第三,指出了米歇尔·福柯关于权力和支配的概念。
马克思的权力观和统治观如下。马克思从社会工作的角度指出,家庭和组织得到了他们需要的社会物品。首先,这种不平等伴随着一个更大的社会制度,它创造了一种权利感并使之永存,反过来又阻碍了社区或家庭制度的正常运转。这些受损的系统不能保护个人免受不利情况的影响。这个循环只能通过改变功率分布来逆转(hibou,2006,第2-3页)。也就是说,由于各种原因,社会中存在着没有权利,要改变这种状况只能向权力再分配,而要实现这一目标只能通过增加权力(hibou,2006,第3-4页)。
。Karl Marx's conceptions of power and domination are indicated as follow. From social work’s point of view, Marx pointed out that Families and organizations get the social goods they need. Firstly, this inequality is accompanied by a larger social system that creates a sense of entitlement and perpetuates it, which in turn prevents the community or the family system from functioning well. These damaged systems do not protect individuals from negative aspects of the situation. This circle can only be reversed by changing the distribution of power(Hibou, 2006, p 2-3). That is to say, due to various reasons exist in the society has no right to, want to change this situation can only to the redistribution of power, and to achieve this goal only by increasing power (Hibou, 2006, p 3-4).
其次,人们对更高层次的生存需要:在实现政治权力、丰富精神文化生活、以及环境保护等方面提出了更高的要求(巴斯蒂安,2016,p803)。人的需求是多层次的、多方面的,是发展的,人民自由实现的多层次的、多方面的需求是多层次的、多方面的,社会主义建设的发展和人民的满意是一个不断发展的过程。更全面(hibou,2006,第3-4页)
Secondly, the people to a higher level on survival needs: on the realization of political power, rich in the spiritual and cultural life, as well as on environmental protection of the sustainable development, and so on aspects put forward higher requirements(Bastien, 2016, p803). Man's demand is multilevel, multifaceted, is the development, the multilateral requirements demand by the people's freedom to achieve is multilevel and various, and the development of socialist construction and to the satisfaction of the people free to implement is a process of constant development and more comprehensive(Hibou, 2006, p 3-4).
Thirdly, with the development of economy, however, after the basic survival to solve, people are bound to pursue more power in politics, pursue to the protection of their various rights and interests, also is able to share common political governance rights, more freedom in politics(Mark, 2012, p 1-2); At the spiritual and cultural level, people have higher requirements for spiritual culture after basic survival needs, and aspire to a higher level of spiritual and cultural life. At the same time, how to ensure the healthy sustainability of economic development, solve the increasingly prominent resource depletion in the economic development, the tension between human and nature, and so on(Jacobs, 2017, p 326). 
All in all, with the development of economy and the overall social progress, people's demand not just content to eat satisfied wear warm, people in all aspects of economy, politics, culture and ecology are put forward higher claim, which is both the problems facing with the development of socialist construction, but also people in the inevitable development intrinsic demand, only for the people concerned to respond in a timely manner and to solve, can get better people's identity, and to get better ideology leadership(Hibou, 2006, p 3-4).
Compared with Weber’s view,besides meeting the basic survival needs and people life security, people inevitably request to certain political rights, the political rights of the requirements of the first is based on the basic survival needs to meet its own rights are guaranteed, and political rights and maintain based on the people in the process of material production of interpersonal relationships, and the resulting social transaction processing and distribution of power in the field of public life, to achieve "really solve the contradiction between people," political freedom realization is another basic content of each individual liberation(Stewart, 2001, p 2-3).
How socialism enjoys ideological leadership depends on whether it can meet the vital interests of each individual's economic, political, cultural and ecological rights and the need for free implementation(Mark, 2012, p 5-6). Marxism as the ideology of the working people, established the direction of the liberation of human freedom, liberation of the future to make a deep penetration of time and space of idea, established the "human beings, between human and nature of the contradiction between the real solution, is the existence and essence, objectification and self-verification, freedom and necessity, individual and class struggle between the real solution" goal concept, the idea of the ideal society in the future, the proposed "free association" the communist social system is designed, and the criticism on the basis of the existing capitalist production relations, proposed by eliminate the dictatorship of the dictatorship of the proletariat, by the ideology of the proletariat to eliminate in the service of a few false ideology, and look forward to no dictatorship and false ideology of free combination of the communist society(Stewart, 2001, p 3-4).
Compared with Foucault’s view, the implementation of Marxist ideology leadership is a top-down power theory and practice of the process of construction and bottom-up psychological identity unity, the realization of the ideological leadership is not once and for all, but a change constantly with the development of social practice, the dynamic process of its implementation depends on the construction of top-down and bottom-up fit(Mark, 2012, p 4-5). Western ideology in the end, ideological generalization trend is in the service of the capitalist production relations, is the nature of bourgeois ideology, which is a kind of ideology of Marx's sense of "false"(Portes, 2017, p33). The end and ultimate generalization of ideology can be realized only in the communist society where the state is eliminated, the class is eliminated, and the freedom and freedom of the people are realized(Stewart, 2001, p 3-4). There have been some adjustments in the modern western capitalist production relations, but the basic production relations of the capitalist system have not changed, thus the fallibility of the capitalist ideology has not changed fundamentally(Haugaard, 2014, p 2-3). But in the west in the capitalist production relations under the condition of free adjustment of power that there is no change in the west in the capitalist system under the premise of expanding and adjusted the part of the members of the community of free allocation of power, to mitigate the conflict between the western capitalist society, is conducive to consolidate the capitalist production relations(Munro, 2003, p 3-4).
Max Weber's conceptions of power and domination are demonstrated as follow.Firstly, power is the central concept of politics, and scholars have different interpretations of power, but any interpretation of power is influenced by Weber. Weber gives only a descriptive definition of what power is. "Power means that in a social relationship, even if there is opposition, there is any opportunity to carry out its will, regardless of the foundation on which it is built." Weber's concept of power is simple, but the core of power is coercive power. As a kind of coercive power, power exists widely in social life(Sowa, 2013, p 3-4). However, Weber mainly talks about power from the political level, and his definition of "politics" is based on power(Cerella, 2016, p280). 


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