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国际业务市场在中国的发展

时间:2016-04-21 09:30来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网 点击:
在当代社会,中国,大受欢迎的国际业务市场,吸引着来自全世界的全球的关注。
70年代后期以来,中国,这是一个虽然发展中国家,经历了惊人的经济增长,到现在为止它的GDP增加速度非常快,平均7%的一年。 (中央情报局世界概况,2013年)这个国家位于在矿井太平洋的东海岸,并共享陆地边界与共有14个国家;参阅图1(中央情报局世界概况,2013),这是中国与周边国家之间的边境贸易和商务交流非常方便。俄罗斯和加拿大的背后,这个国家总面积第三大国约960万km2s的区域。(CIA世界各国概况,2013年)凭借有利区,有大量的资源,这是有利于生产和出口产品的国际业务。此外,先进的海,陆,空立体交通网络可以节省时间,货物配送。图1:中国在亚洲(来源:中央情报局世界概况,2013年)In contemporary society, China, a large popular international business market, attracts globalattention from whole world. Since the late 1970s, China, which is although a developingcountry, has experienced amazing economic growth, and until now its increasing speed ofGDP is very fast with average 7% year. (CIA World Factbook, 2013) This country is located inthe eastern coast of the Pacific Ocean, and shares land borders with 14 countries in total; seeFigure 1. (CIA World Factbook, 2013) This is very convenient for frontier trade and businesscommunication among China and its neighboring countries. Behind Russia and Canada, thiscountry is the third largest country in total area with an area of about 9,600,000 km2s.(CIAWorld Factbook, 2013) With advantageous area, there are substantial resources, which arebeneficial to manufacture and export products in international business. In addition, advancedsea-land-air transportation network saves time for goods delivery.Figure 1: China in Asia(Source: CIA World Factbook, 2013)
Economic Change经济变迁
 
Deng Xiaoping, who is named the ‘chief designer’ of China’s economic reform, made greatcontribution for Chinese economic growth. (Fairbank, J. K.; Goldman, M; 2006) He madereasonable economic and political policies which help China get out of ruins of the CulturalRevolution. With proposition of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, China reformed from aplanned economic system to a mixed market system to create an international market for theneed of Chinese economic development. In my opinion, this great reform has createdopportunities for China’s transformation. And since then, after making efforts to improverelationships with other countries, China’s international trade has entered the right track.With Deng’s intelligent leadership, China also developed international minds and opened itsgate for foreign investment. In 1979, four modernizations and special economic zones, whichare all coastal cities, were put forward and implemented attract foreign investments, trades,and technologies. There were fourteen more cities that were similarly designated in 1984.(Naughton, Barry, 2007) Since then, this country started the progress for itsinternationalization. Many foreign investors seized the chance to do international business withChinese companies. China also learned advanced technologies abroad. In addition,cooperative farms were decollectivized, which promoted a dramatic increase in agriculturalproduction. (Hart Landsberg Martin, Burkett Paul, 2010)Due to effective liberalization policies, China’s GDP increased sharply in 1978 and 1998(Figure 2), and in 1990s, foreign investment soared. (Chow, Gregory C, 2007) With moreforeign investments, China’s manufacturing industry rose at a rapid speed, which contributesto prosperity of its international business. Besides, decentralization of control and the creationof special economic zones are also may reasons for obvious industrial increasing, especially inconsumer production. (Wright, David Curtis, 2001)

Figure 2 People’s Republic of China’s Nominal Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from 1952 to 2005(Source: Dahlman, Carl J, Aubert, and Jean Eric, 2001)Since economic reform in 1979, the average increasing rate of Chinese GDP is 9.8% per year,and this phenomenon is well known as ‘China’s economic miracle”. (Dahlman, Carl J Aubert,and Jean Eric, 2001) China’s globalization is not only necessary for its own development needbut also for other countries to expand international markets.To be more competitive in global markets, China became a membership of the WTO (WorldTrade Organization) in the year of 2001; (Schoppa, R. Keith, 2000) this event has historicalsignificance for Chinese international trade. Over 45 years past, these effective economicpolicies, especially reform and opening up, make China a total different country and havesignificant influence on its international business.
 
Political Changes政治变迁
 
A modern legal system was built n the late 1970s as well. Driven by Deng, important moveslike the mandatory retirement of senior officials were made in the 1980s. (Naughton, Barry,2007) Then laws of criminal, civil, administrative, and commercial area are established.Furthermore, China’s importance of supranational organization, such as UN, G20, ASEAN etc.,is growing, which provides more and more opportunities for international communications withother economies.Political reform assisted Chinese people building open minds, which is also helpful tointernational business. For example, Chinese can learn from foreign business strategiesthrough international cultural communication. And governments encourage foreign tradecompanies to form conglomerates and engage in internationalized business operation. Inaddition, because of advances in technology and set-free minds, information and ideas circlethe globe faster and more freely than ever. However, political changes may also have negativeinfluence on global business. To some degree, politics can affect relationships amongcountries, which may easily promote or reduce international trade between countries in thecontrast; sometimes diplomatic relations may lead to trade barriers.
 
Challenges挑战
 
Nowadays China's mainly challenge is how to balance its highly centralized political economyand its increasingly decentralized economy. In short period, the rapid economic growth may beadvantageous to improve international business and attract global investment, but in a longperiod, rapid economic development may be not beneficial to sustainable development.Although economic growth is essential for China’s continuous development, the governmentbegan to make measures for protecting resources and environment. The phenomenon ofshort-term prosperity of international business could appear easily. In this situation, ScientificDevelopment’ was put forward.Another concern is unbalanced economy may enlarge gap of wealth, like the wide economiclevel between urban and rural areas. This situation may also lead to unbalance on Chineseglobal business. It is very general to do global trade in some large international cities; however,it is difficult to do business in rural areas for foreigners who prefer to invest specific products.This difference between internationalization degrees may compounds difficulties forglobalization.Politics have evident and timely influence on international business as mentioned above.Political tensions and conflict may be disadvantageous to global trade. In fact, China alwayspursues good neighboring relationship, resolves disputes through diplomatic means, andseeks common security and lasting peace since reform and opening up.. This politicalstanding can help improve China’s international economic environment. However, tradebarriers are unavoidable. Green trade barrier has been implemented, which is a usefulmeasure to deal with trade barriers in some specific economic zones, and it has become oneof the most effective means of trade protection in the current international trade.Furthermore, fierce international competition cannot be ignored among international businesschallenges. Besides, China is losing its advantages on its low labor cost. And it still need toimprove technologies to reduce cost for international trade.
 
References文献
 
1. China worried over pace of growth, "BBC, accessed 16 April 2006. China's Economic Transformation. Pp213.3. CIA World Factbook, 2013, accessed 1/6/2014. China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21stcentury. World Bank Publications. Accessed January 30, 2008. Fairbank, J. K.; Goldman, M; 2006. China: A New History (2nd ed.). Harvard University Press.Pp. 320. "China and Socialism: Market Reforms and ClassStruggle". The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth, Pp 25.8. Wright, David Curtis, 2001. History of China. Pp257.Appendix
 


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