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时间:2016-04-25 16:47来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:
Management Essay:管理的意义
The Meaning Of Management 
The definition of management is the process of achieving target. It can be a individual or a group , it has a system with skills,experience and knowledge. They should design de process org anise and control.(Kalyan-city.blogspot.co.uk) Management is not only a social phenomenon, but also survive with human society activities. Management is the product of human society, organization is the basic and original ways to manage.
The most important tasks to management are monitoring the people, helping improve and develop business and using maximum resources to make profits for both people and company.
Human resource is the most basic and important part in a company, if management can organize it well, they can get the best benefits back. A good leader should use right ways to manage this source, not only think are they using the right people or not. They should know how to use and distribute them. It is not only using some famous advice or theories, it should combined both the times change and problems. However, for different levels of people management is different. For Higher skill workers and self-motivated employees the manager should be authorized. For beginners or less motivation workers, manager should must pay attention on the output. (suite101.com)
Achieving things for customers, suppliers and shareholders is the next essential part.(textbook p8 ). Customers' satisfaction is from meeting their demands for quality , style, quantity and service. Therefor, a successful management should have a organization to get customers' loyalty. Getting long-term supply from suppliers and keep investment from shareholders these are all need have a rounded managerial system.
Finally, making maximum profit with minimum resources. They are depends on organization by budgeting.
管理的特征——2. Characteristics of management
Management is an activity which is concerned with the continues process.(preservearticles.com) It is organizing, activating and the methods to control the human resources and money. Therefor, they can get the most profits from organization.
Management also can be a career, it has widely concept. It can be divided into lots of parts. Such as marketing, accounting, promotion and personnel. It is a science, not like normal science,it is the science for research methods by knowledge system in management area.
It is a guide for achieving target. The successful or failure is depends on the what the target is and how to achieve it. Has a good and reasonable target can motivate employees to work harder and using less sources to make more profits.
Management is the symbolize of authority. Because of the managers should have ability on guide, control and direct. So authority is a essential characteristic for managers in management. Therefore, leadership comes out, so it should have a monitor to lead the team to successful.
Decision- making, it involves make decision at every single level in company.It should consider the different ways of methods to facing different problems.Its very important for the development of company's future.
Working with people . Management is include distribute works to people by levels of skill and knowledge and also through training to improve their skills for different areas in company. Therefore, using right people,improve people's skill and make the most profits through them. (universalteacherpublications.com)
管理的层次和功能——Levels of management and functions of management
There are four functions can effect management, they are planning, organizing, leading and controlling and three levels of management, they are (voices.yahoo.com)
Planning is start from research resources which needed to achieve target and operate the strategies. Therefore, it is an essential part in the prosses of achieve target.
Because targes can only be accomplished by planning.
Organizing is the process of collecting every resources, it includes people, information, money, materials and other useful resources. In this stage the target is set up by the resources and combined them to work together.
Leading is another function of management, it can make motivation to people let them have the passion to improve and use their skills.
Control is the last function of management.This function can make all the others functions be useful because it give the managers the authority to control everything.It also can change these functions to make them become more effective for achieving targets.
There are three levels of management, top level, middle level and frontline.Top level management is the leader of the whole company is in charge of every department. They should control resources and keep company make profit. They use all of the four functions to be successful.
科学管理——scientific management
Scientific Management was point out by Frederick Winslow Taylor which improved the production efficiency was in the late 19th century using a scientific analysis to establish the optimal process production management method.
While Taylor was working in the Bethlehem Steel Corporation he talked to a iron porter who called Schmidt and made his working efficiency doubled. At the same time, he is also expected using scientific management to the reduce the working hours, energy consumption and the eradication of poverty. Taylor's theory and methods are not being accepted at the first place, that is why the scientific management sometimes contemptuously called Taylor-ism management.
Most people can only saw and feel The direct material waste, but the waste caused by unskilled inefficiency worker can not be seen can not be seen at that time. The entire national resources suffered a huge losses by not pay attention to the efficiency of the behavior in every days activities. Due to the scientific management improved a lot of manufacturing efficiency. The western management circle start calling Taylor as "father of scientific management".
Taylor's scientific management's fundamental purpose is to meet a maximum working efficiency to achieve advantage to both employer and employee by reach the higher wages and lower labor costs.
Scientific management using some basic management system.
1. Let workers to use the Scientific methods , so that they can use the time more efficiently, Workers need to stop the excess action to improve the necessary action and provides a standard time to complete each unit operation also a fixed labor time for each work.
2. Using Scientific selection for workers, train them the right technology and Select the appropriate arrangements for the workers to be in the right positions, and training workers to use the standard method of operation, make them work in a gradually grow.
3.Develop scientific process and using specific tools, machines, materials, standardization, and operating environment than using the fixed documents to record the procedure.
4. Implementation using incentive work system. Give overworked workers a higher work payment also let the less work done workers have a lower amount of work paid.

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