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代写澳洲termpaper|组织文化变量与管理特征(2)

时间:2017-03-17 17:10来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:cinq 点击:
Ralston, Holt, Terpstra and Cheng argued that economic ideology and national culture has a deep impact on individual work values of managers. Barney argues that organizational culture can be a source
 
Ralston, Holt, Terpstra and Cheng argued that economic ideology and national culture has a deep impact on individual work values of managers.
 
Barney argues that organizational culture can be a source of sustained competitive advantage. He argued that some organizations have developed a culture which provides means to achieve competitive advantage.
 
Schein argued that organizational culture has profound effects on its survival. He stated that an organization cannot survive if it cannot manage itself as an organized one through the use of deeply entrenched culture. He further argued that organizational culture brings in stability and thus it must be instilled into the new members.
 
Schein argued in another paper that culture needs to be understood thoroughly and analyzed if an organization intends to take advantage of it in the field of organizational psychology.
 
Denison and Mishra argued that there was a relationship between organizational culture and effectiveness. According to them organizational culture can be measured and can be related to critical organizational outcomes.
 
Chatman and Jehn argued that the use of organizational culture to attain competitive advantage may not bear as much fruit as some scholars have argued it to be. They argued that there may be some constraints in the way to achieving this competitive advantage by using organizational culture.
 
According to Sheridan (1992), organizational culture and employee retention are related. His study showed that the differences in employees’ cultural values and the organizational values resulted in significant cases where employees deliberately left their jobs indicating that cultural fit is imperative to job retention for the organizations.
 
Gordan & DiTomaso (1992) argued that a strong organizational culture is positively associated with better performance. Their research also concluded that a strong culture lends itself to a short-term performance hike.
 
Organizational Sincerity
Loyalty is directly related to corporate vision, mission and values. As the business world is multifaceted therefore approach should be chosen with great care to analyse the gap between promise and performance gap (Fassin & Buelens, 2011).
 
Managers’ role in encouraging employees, giving them feedback regarding their performance and guiding leading them towards right career is very important. When employees are motivated because of management support they deliver quality sevice. Except of that employees whose goals are compatible with those of organizations are more productive and enthusiastic (Paswan, Pelton and True).
 
Ali and Kazemi (1993) argue that loyal employee are real assets of an organization because they are those who do not quit in rainy days and stand by the organization as they own the problems of organization. Furthermore they say that sincere employees are more productive and are punctual.
 
In case of loyalty, in US skills are preferred on seniority and seniority is not as important promotion criterion as skills are. While in Japan seniority is most important to be qualified as leader. But in Taiwan connections with owners are also valued along with seniority as important criteria to be qualified as leader (Glinow,Huo & Lowe,1999).
 
In US mangers are considered more competent than employees therefore speaking skills are important criteria to be promoted as leader and leaders tend to be good speakers to communicate corporate vision. While Japanese believe in equality and homogeneity of human talent therefore subordinates’ input is considered very important. Taiwan is hybrid of both (Glinow et al, 1999).
 
In US a leader needs to develop specialized skills to be promoted as leader while in Japan to be a leader one needs to possess broad-cope skills and experience. In Taiwan both, specialized skills and broad-scope skills with experience are important criteria to be an effective leader (Glinow et al, 1999).
 
Chen and Tjosvold (2006) have argued that to strengthen the relationship between employees must tbe cooperative and not the competitive especially when mangers are from different countries.
 
Work Performance
There is a noteworthy impact of HRM practices that a company adopts on the wellbeing and positive performance of employees (Baptiste, 2007).
 
Performance can be improved by employee participation and flexibility in job design.
 
(Gershenfeld, 1988; Jaikumar, 1986).
 
Managers should encourage employee participation and flexible structures to enhance the performance. Firms that are changing their traditional rigid organizational structure and bringing flexibility in work design are able to improve their performance and output quality (Baffour, 1999).
 
Age and experience have non linear relationship with performance. Experience, rather than age, is a better predictor of performance ( Avolio, Waldman & McDaniel, 1990)
 
Blumberg and Pringle (1982) emphasized a model of work performance which says that performance is a result of ability motivation and opportunity.
 
It is argued that health of organizations is directly influenced by health of employees, if employees are healthy they will perform better and organizations will grow and become healthy (Baptiste, 2008).
 
Gillespie and Mann (2004) and Dirks and Ferrin (2002) have argued that trust is an important feature in the relationship that leaders have with their subordinates and that it is through this subordinate trust and respect for their leader, that subordinates are motivated to perform well. This view is supported by Bijlsma and Koopma (2003) who claim that trust is an important factor to organizational performance, because it facilitates discretionary effort to assist the organization.
 
Standing (1997) argues that the critical areas of labor insecurity that should be considered as they effect work performance are those that relate to income insecurity (unsteady earnings or where earnings are contingency-based), working time insecurity (irregular hours at the discretion of the employer, and insufficient hours worked) and representation insecurity (where the employee has limited power to negotiate or participate).
 
Design and physical properties of work place can have negative or positive effect on work performance of employees. A greater environment innovative work settings, a greater task performance in innovative work settings and a greater interaction with innovative work settings are associated with greater satisfaction and enhanced productivity (Ilozer, 2002)
 
According to Armstrong (2000), performance management is a way of getting better results from the whole organization or individuals within it, by understanding and managing performance within an agreed framework of predetermined goals, standards and competence requirements. According to Walters (1995), performance management is about guiding and supporting employees to work as effectively and efficiently as possible according to the goals of the organization.
 
A drug-free workplace helps to enhance output and performance and lowers the chance of injury. Many companies feel testing employees has helped to bring about lower costs, lower absenteeism, and lower medical costs (Bacon, 1989).
 
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS 研究方法
 
Method of Data Collection
As our research study is descriptive and sources of information are primary, therefore we have used personal type of survey to collect the data. First of all data collection process was planned properly and then instrument was developed accordingly. After the development of instrument, pilot testing was done. Lastly actual data was collected and compiled. To collect the data through questionnaire we approached managers of different organization and used snow ball technique.
 
Sampling Technique
As the number of elements is unknown, we have used Non-probability sampling technique. To collect data in proper and convenient way, Convience sampling is used. The managers are easily accessible so it is most beneficial of all other sampling techniques.
 
First of all the population was defined, and then sampling frame was determined. After determination of sampling frame, sampling technique was decided. Once the technique is decided, sample size was decided too. At last, the sampling process was executed.
 
Sample Size
The proposed number of respondents is two hundred and fifty (250).
 
Instrument of Data Collection
To study the effects of managerial characteristics and organizational culture on manager’s trade-off between organizational sincerity and work performance for employee production, a questionnaire is developed comprising of nine questions.
 
First question is about the work practices of mangers and their individualistic approach towards the work and how they perceive and conceive it. This question is further divided in ten questions in order to become more specific. Second question, which is further subdivided into twenty questions, is about the organizational culture. The number of questions is higher as compare to previous one because culture is more descriptive and a lot of information is required to comprehend it. Third question is about gender. It will tell us that whether gender makes any difference in giving promotion either to an efficient or loyal employee. Question four is about the age. It will also help us to see whether attitudes and beliefs regarding loyalty and efficiency change with respect to age. Fifth and sixth questions are about employee experience with current organization and overall experience respectively.


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