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一篇范文教你留学墨尔本大学不可不知的coursework写作标准

时间:2014-10-25 18:05来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:yangcheng 点击:
在留学生经济类的作业中,发展中国家的经济研究一直是热点,本文研究的是印度能源行业的结构,政策和法规,印度被称为金砖国家,具有十分巨大的潜力,本篇是一篇十分优秀的作业案例。
印度能源行业的结构,政策和法规
 
1991年,印度开始把在能源领域的结构性改革作为一个重要的经济目标,从一个封闭的电力行业转型为以市场为基础的开放型经济。电力开发部门对参与发电的私营部门开放。以目前的情况来看,国家电力委员会考虑到下列因素,如电力供应和需求,主板的弱点,财政问题等,分析了印度电力行业的发展趋势,以显示他们对独立电力生产商的影响。在实施改革的权力部门,本文探讨了国有企业的障碍,特别是那些涉及私有化电力市场的发展过程中出现的关键问题。在1991年给出的法案侧重于印度能够并且应该做的法规和制度的改革,而现在开发一个电力市场主要考虑经济效率和社会责任。经分析指出,国外直接投资的部门需求和国家本身的需求在财富分配和财富创造方面不相交。

ENERGY SECTOR STRUCTURES, POLICIES AND REGULATIONS IN INDIA
 
India initiated structural reforms in the energy sector as a key economic objective while transitioning from a closed to a market based economy in 1991. The Power Sector was opened for private participation in generation of electricity. This paper analyzes the current situation in the Indian Power Sector, taking into account factors such as trends of electricity supply and demand, financial problems of the State Electricity Boards and factors responsible for the weakness of these Boards, to show their impact on Independent Power Producers. The paper examines the key issues arising in the process of implementing the reforms in the power sector, especially those involving privatization of the state-owned enterprises and barriers to the development of electricity market. The paper focuses on how India, given the 1991 legal, regulatory and institutional reforms can and should do now to develop an electricity market that is economically efficient and socially responsible. The analysis identifies the need for Foreign Direct Investment in the sector and the need for the state to disjoint its wealth generation activities from its wealth distribution activities. Specifically the present policies of the government tend to promote centralization, whereas the most pressing need is in rural areas, to fulfill which decentralization initiatives must be pursued. This in turn involves tackling developing country dynamics and using a dual policy perspective so that both the urban and rural needs can be balanced so as to achieve the twin objectives of power sufficiency and efficiency.
 
TABLE OF CONTENT
 
Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION
 
India is now the second fastest growing economy in the world. Despite the current economic slowdown, India is expected to grow at approximately 7-8% this fiscal year. The expanding base of industries and services the main drivers of economic growth is exerting pressure on India’s weak infrastructure. The power sector remains a key infrastructure concern and India’s continued economic growth will depend critically on its ability to meet the growing electricity demand.
 
Improved access through better grid connectivity, increased certainty of electricity supply and price affordability all play an equally important role in shaping the politics and economics of the sector. India’s pattern of energy demand, consumption and growth, must therefore be understood in the context of its objectives – as a basis for sustaining economic growth. Over the last few years, the story on India’s economic growth has been underlined by the story of India’s power sector.
 
The power sector has long experienced capacity shortfalls, poor reliability and quality of electricity and frequent blackouts which has been a major impediment to economic growth. Despite reforms introducing private participation during the 1990s, the India’s electricity sector has remained dominated by the state. State utilities remain the dominant institutions within India’s electricity industry, controlling well over half of the electricity supply and the vast majority of distribution.
 
Electricity as a subject is in the concurrent list of the Constitution of India. It means that both the Union and State Governments can formulate policies and laws on the subject, but the responsibility of implementation rests with the States. Distribution of electricity in particular comes in the domain of the states.
 
There are a number of significant problems in the Indian power sector that appear intransigent. For example, agricultural subsidies continue to stifle reforms. There is a pressing need for the Indian government to implement a national policy on farm tariffs. At present political "generosity" such as the free grant of electricity to farmers needs to stop in order to make the sector financially more viable and attractive investment. A further bottleneck to progress is lack of adequate fuel resources and poor port facilities in the country. Although a number of initiatives in the coal sector should assist the supply of fuel for power generation, the quantum and reliability of the gas supply remains a concern.
 
Overall however, after a number of false-starts, the Indian power sector is in the midst of a positive hue and much of that stems from a series of measures sought to liberalize generation, form regulatory commissions, unbundle electricity boards, create transmission as a separate business and introduce distribution reforms. Despite the piece meal approach, these reforms finally coalesced into the Electricity Act 2003. Although the implementation of the Act is far from complete, and progress is patchy across the states, a critical mass of reforms has been achieved and comprehesnive regulatory framework is now in place. This will go a long way in persuading private players and foreign investors to come off their sidelines and participate in the development of one of the world's largest infrastructure markets.
 
India is facing a major challenge as it seeks to upgrade the entire electricity delivery chain. Given the various constraints on government, primarily the financial ones, private participation in power sector is likely to increase sharply. Government of India (GoI) has recognized the importance of changing its policies and creating an environment conducive to sustainable private sector involvement. But the pace of the reforms of needs to be accelerated, and private developers need to develop more flexible, innovative, and realistic project designs and concepts.
 
This paper covers an overview of the electricity delivery chain in India. The paper begins with an overview of the industry, the emerging market scenario and It then illustrates the current situation with respect to the in Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution and the risks associated with these system. All the observations on the future trends in the financing of the Power Sector in India are highlighted. The paper concludes with the solutions to deal with these issues of the Power Sector in India
 
CHAPTER-2 THE INDIAN POWER SECTOR
 
2.1 A SYNOPSIS OF THE POWER SECTOR
 
Electrical power is the most vital and essential input for all economic and industrial activities in any country. In India, the primary sources for generating electric power are hydro sources, fossil fuels which include coal, lignite and natural gas and nuclear power, besides non-conventional sources such as wind, biomass, solar etc. a
 
When India became independent in 1947, the electricity supply was mostly limited to metropolitan cities and big towns. Power stations and associated transmission and distribution network were by some private agencies and, in few cases, by departments of state governments and the Municipal committees. Per capita consumption was merely 16 KWH in 1950. Giving due consideration to the fact that this most basic infrastructure needed to be developed on an industrial pattern, Indian Electricity supply act was enacted in 1948. This Act provided measures to rationalize power industry, envisaged formation of SEB’s with various state governments and a central agency for overall planning, coordination and regulation at the national level. Subsequently, this Act was amended in 1975 providing for establishment of generating companies under the central government.
 
2.2 STRUCTURE OF POWER INDUSTRY
 
The broad structure of the power supply industry, as it exists today, consists of the following:
 
Ministry of Power in the union government of India.
 
Central Electricity Authority as a statutory technical wing of the Ministry of Power, Government of India, to assist the government in overall planning, coordination and regulation of power development programs of the country.
 
A number of corporations under the union government to develop and operate power stations which include National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd., National Hydro Electric Power Corporation, etc.
 
Rural Electrification Corporation, a government of India Company for assisting the SEB’s in development & programs of rural electrification.
 
Power Grid Corporation under the Government of India to establish and maintain high voltage transmission system and regional load dispatch centers.
 
Power Finance Corporation under the Government of India to assist various electricity boards and other organization in power sector.


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