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澳洲course work:变革管理方法

时间:2015-03-08 15:03来源:http://www.ukassignment.org/ 作者:englishamatuer 点击:
在商业环境中,实用原则确实是无处不在的,并且无时无刻不被使用和实施。我们生活在一个“一切照旧”发生转变的世界里。新的建议,基于项目的运作,技术改进和在竞争统筹中暂时领先以及推动经营方式不断变化的工作已被实施。管理变革可以定义为定期评价一个组织服务外部和内部客户不断变化的需求的方向,培训和潜力(莫兰和布莱曼,2001:111)的现象。变革有一种即时的,不规则,无计划以及由于变革需要的不确定性通常在组织遇到危机的情况下发生的倾向(伯恩斯,2004)。然而,为了在竞争激烈和不断增长的氛围中生存并保持领先,成功的变革管理是必须的(Luecke,2003; Okumus and Hemmington,1998)。变革管理有两个重要问题,因为很难当场就关于组织变革管理的框架达成任何协议。首先目前的商业环境的变化速度是前所未有的(Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004; Carnall, 2003)。其次,就是变革由内部或外部因素触发以成为共识,涉及各种形状,形式和规模(Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004; Carnall, 2003)。关于如何进行变革有许多理论,有大量文献阐述了变革的重要性以及如何进行变革的方法。有四种方法来实现主要变革(Carnall,2007):

In case of business environment, the facts are true everywhere and whenever they are used and applied. We live in a world where ‘business as usual' is change. The things like new proposals, project-based functioning, technical enhancements and being ahead in the race of competition co-ordinate and work to drive constant changes to the way business is done. Change management can be defined as the phenomenon of frequently evaluating an organization's path, formation and potentiality to serve the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers (Moran and Brightman, 2001: 111). A change has a tendency to be immediate, irregular, unplanned and generated by a situation of organizational crisis as the need for change is often uncertain (Burnes, 2004). However, in order to be alive and stay ahead in the highly competitive and constantly growing atmosphere, the successful management of change is accepted as a necessity (Luecke, 2003; Okumus and Hemmington, 1998). There are two important issues in change management because it is difficult to spot any agreement regarding a framework for organizational change management. First, it has been decided that the speed of change has never been greater than in the current business environment (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004; Carnall, 2003). Second, there is an agreement that change, being triggered by internal or external factors, comes in all shapes, forms and sizes (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004; Carnall, 2003). There are many theories about how to do change and there is a huge literature highlighting the importance of change and ways to approach it. There are four approaches to implement major changes (Carnall, 2007):
临床方式,变革成功或失败取决于个人和团队的参与,——Clinical approaches, where success or failure of change lies on the involvement of individuals and teams
直线方式将变革描绘为从设想到执行步骤的一系列过程,被标记为“管理方式”,——Linear approaches portray change as a series of steps from the vision to implementation and are tagged as the ‘managerial approaches',

系统的理论将整个系统视为分析的基本单位,——System theory is where the whole system is taken into consideration as the basic unit of analysis

Emergent approaches focus more on change as it comes. Here the focus is on uniqueness and procedures for attaining advance change to continued competitive advantage rather than focusing on one particular change agenda (Collins, 2001).
These theories and approaches are a proof to the fact that change is a real phenomenon. It can be observed and analyzed through various steps and phases (Kritsonis, 2004). So, the purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the models used in the theories of linear approaches given by different writers such as Lewin's 3-Step change management model (1947), Kotter's 8-Step change model (1996) and Mckinsey's 7S model (1978).
3步模型:——3-Step Model:
Kurt Lewin (1947) introduced the three-step change model and this is often referred as Lewin's key contribution to the organizational change. While developing this model, Lewin was not thinking only of organizational issues and nor he wanted to see this element separately from his planned approach to change which included field theory, group dynamics and action research (Burnes, 1996). It is an integrated approach to investigate, considerate and bring about change at the group, institutional or public levels. According to Lewin (1947), a successful change project has three steps. The first step in the phenomenon of changing behavior is to unfreeze the existing situation or status quo which is considered the equilibrium state (Schein, 1996). There are three methods to achieve an unfreezing state. First, boost the driving forces that direct behavior away from the existing situation. Second, the focus that harmfully affects the movement of existing equilibrium should be decreased. And lastly, look for an integration of both the above mentioned methods. The activities that can help in the unfreezing step are motivating individuals by preparing them for the change, building the trust and the recognition for the need of change and participating actively to recognize the problems within the group (Robbins, 2003: 564-565).
Lewin's second step in the process of change is moving. This is a learning approach supported by action research. This step means that one should take all forces into consideration at work and spot and calculate on a trial and error basis (Lewin, 1947). Here, it is necessary to move the target system to a new level of equilibrium. With the help of this iterative (looping) approach, the groups and individuals are enabled to move from a less acceptable to a more acceptable set of actions (Lewin, 1947). The final step of Lewin's three-step change model is refreezing. This step takes place after the implementation of change as it has to be sustained or “stick” over a period of time (Kritsonis, 2004). The motive of refreezing is to still down the new behaviors evolving from the change by matching both driving and restraining forces. The main point here is that new behavior must be similar with the rest of the behavior, qualities and atmosphere of the learner; otherwise it will simply lead to a new circling of disconfirmation (Schein, 1996).
However, this 3-step model of change has become out dated in the last two decades (Dawson, 1994). The major drawback of this model is that it is timely, but one must take into consideration that it is timely for any change to take place. One more issue is that during the refreezing stage many individuals are worried about the new change and they are in a change shock which causes employees to be less efficient and effective towards their jobs (Syque, 2007, www.changingminds.org). According to the arguments amongst researchers, Lewin's model is very simple and mechanical process for the corporate world where change in organizations is a constant and unlimited process (Dawson, 1994; Kanter et al., 1992; Stacey, 1993). This change model does not have the ability to fit in fundamental, transformational change and is only significant to incremental and inaccessible change projects (Dawson, 1994; Pettigrew, 1990). Lewin's change model steps also ignore the conflicting nature within the organization and role of power and politics within the organization (Dawson, 1994; Wilson, 1992). Lewin adopted a top-down management-driven approach and ignored the situations in the implementation of change where a bottom-up approach is required which resulted in difficulty for sustaining change (Dawson, 1994; Kanter et al., 1992; Wilson, 1992).
Kotter的8步变革模型——Kotter's Eight Step Change Model:
Harvard Professor John P. Kotter has been observing the process of change for over three decades now. According to him there are critical differences between change efforts that are successful and the change efforts that have failed. He is more concerned about why some people are able to change their organizations successfully in a dramatic way and why some people do not. Kotter (1996) in his book has mentioned about a list of factors that he believes lead to successful changes and also those factors that lead to the failure (Kotter, 1996). He has created an eight step method where the first four steps focus on defreezing the organizations, the next three steps make the change happen and the last step refreezes the organization with the new culture. According to Kotter (1996), if these eight steps are followed in order, the people can make big changes significantly and effectively. The first step is to create urgency for change. Here the sense of urgency about the needed change by amplifying energy and motivation is build up. This means that employees are convinced that this change is really important for the company to survive (Kotter, 1996; Rose, 2002). This is not just a matter of showing people the poor sales figures or increased competition but to convince them honestly about what is going on in the market and with the competition and if the people start discussing about the desired change, the need of urgency can build and nourish automatically (www.mindtools.com). The next step is to build a team for the change by identifying the true leaders within the organization (Kotter, 1996; Rose, 2002). This means that mobilize the leaders who are focused, committed and enthusiastic and can lead the change. In order to lead change, the organization must bring together a team of influential individuals whose power comes from a variety of sources such as job title, status, expertise and political importance within the organization (www.mindtools.com). The third step is to create a vision for change which must have a clear direction to how change will have a better effect on the future of the organization and its employees (Kotter, 1996; Rose, 2002). This means that the organization needs to determine the values that are important for a change to be implemented because a clear vision can help everyone understand what they are asked to do. The fourth step is to communicate the vision frequently and powerfully and embed it in everything the organization does. A vision clarifies the direction of the organization in which it has to move further. So, talk often about the change vision and make use of all the existing communication channels to broadcast the vision (Kotter, 1996). The fifth step is to empower employees for broad-based action, i.e., delegating and authorizing people to effect change. This can be done by engaging individuals as partners and to provide them with new opportunities to plan and take action (Kotter, 1996).

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