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澳洲course work:变革管理方法

论文价格: 免费 时间:2015-03-08 15:03:17 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
在商业环境中,实用原则确实是无处不在的,并且无时无刻不被使用和实施。我们生活在一个“一切照旧”发生转变的世界里。新的建议,基于项目的运作,技术改进和在竞争统筹中暂时领先以及推动经营方式不断变化的工作已被实施。管理变革可以定义为定期评价一个组织服务外部和内部客户不断变化的需求的方向,培训和潜力(莫兰和布莱曼,2001:111)的现象。变革有一种即时的,不规则,无计划以及由于变革需要的不确定性通常在组织遇到危机的情况下发生的倾向(伯恩斯,2004)。然而,为了在竞争激烈和不断增长的氛围中生存并保持领先,成功的变革管理是必须的(Luecke,2003; Okumus and Hemmington,1998)。变革管理有两个重要问题,因为很难当场就关于组织变革管理的框架达成任何协议。首先目前的商业环境的变化速度是前所未有的(Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004; Carnall, 2003)。其次,就是变革由内部或外部因素触发以成为共识,涉及各种形状,形式和规模(Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004; Carnall, 2003)。关于如何进行变革有许多理论,有大量文献阐述了变革的重要性以及如何进行变革的方法。有四种方法来实现主要变革(Carnall,2007):

In case of business environment, the facts are true everywhere and whenever they are used and applied. We live in a world where ‘business as usual' is change. The things like new proposals, project-based functioning, technical enhancements and being ahead in the race of competition co-ordinate and work to drive constant changes to the way business is done. Change management can be defined as the phenomenon of frequently evaluating an organization's path, formation and potentiality to serve the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers (Moran and Brightman, 2001: 111). A change has a tendency to be immediate, irregular, unplanned and generated by a situation of organizational crisis as the need for change is often uncertain (Burnes, 2004). However, in order to be alive and stay ahead in the highly competitive and constantly growing atmosphere, the successful management of change is accepted as a necessity (Luecke, 2003; Okumus and Hemmington, 1998). There are two important issues in change management because it is difficult to spot any agreement regarding a framework for organizational change management. First, it has been decided that the speed of change has never been greater than in the current business environment (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004; Carnall, 2003). Second, there is an agreement that change, being triggered by internal or external factors, comes in all shapes, forms and sizes (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004; Carnall, 2003). There are many theories about how to do change and there is a huge literature highlighting the importance of change and ways to approach it. There are four approaches to implement major changes (Carnall, 2007):
 
临床方式,变革成功或失败取决于个人和团队的参与,——Clinical approaches, where success or failure of change lies on the involvement of individuals and teams
 
直线方式将变革描绘为从设想到执行步骤的一系列过程,被标记为“管理方式”,——Linear approaches portray change as a series of steps from the vision to implementation and are tagged as the ‘managerial approaches',

系统的理论将整个系统视为分析的基本单位,——System theory is where the whole system is taken into consideration as the basic unit of analysis

 
Emergent approaches focus more on change as it comes. Here the focus is on uniqueness and procedures for attaining advance change to continued competitive advantage rather than focusing on one particular change agenda (Collins, 2001).
These theories and approaches are a proof to the fact that change is a real phenomenon. It can be observed and analyzed through various steps and phases (Kritsonis, 2004). So, the purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the models used in the theories of linear approaches given by different writers such as Lewin's 3-Step change management model (1947), Kotter's 8-Step change model (1996) and Mckinsey's 7S model (1978).
 
3步模型:——3-Step Model:
 
Kurt Lewin (1947) introduced the three-step change model and this is often referred as Lewin's key contribution to the organizational change. While developing this model, Lewin was not thinking only of organizational issues and nor he wanted to see this element separately from his planned approach to change which included field theory, group dynamics and action research (Burnes, 1996). It is an integrated approach to investigate, considerate and bring about change at the group, institutional or public levels. According to Lewin (1947), a successful change project has three steps. The first step in the phenomenon of changing behavior is to unfreeze the existing situation or status quo which is considered the equilibrium state (Schein, 1996). There are three methods to achieve an unfreezing state. First, boost the driving forces that direct behavior away from the existing situation. Second, the focus that harmfully affects the movement of existing equilibrium should be decreased. And lastly, look for an integration of both the above mentioned methods. The activities that can help in the unfreezing step are motivating individuals by preparing them for the change, building the trust and the recognition for the need of change and participating actively to recognize the problems within the group (Robbins, 2003: 564-565).
 
KEWIN的3步变革模型——KEWIN'S 3-STEP MODEL FOR CHANGE
 
Lewin's second step in the process of change is moving. This is a learning approach supported by action research. This step means that one should take all forces into consideration at work and spot and calculate on a trial and error basis (Lewin, 1947). Here, it is necessary to move the target system to a new level of equilibrium. With the help of this iterative (looping) approach, the groups and individuals are enabled to move from a less acceptable to a more acceptable set of actions (Lewin, 1947). The final step of Lewin's three-step change model is refreezing. This step takes place after the implementation of change as it has to be sustained or “stick” over a period of time (Kritsonis, 2004). The motive of refreezing is to still down the new behaviors evolving from the change by matching both driving and restraining forces. The main point here is that new behavior must be similar with the rest of the behavior, qualities and atmosphere of the learner; otherwise it will simply lead to a new circling of disconfirmation (Schein, 1996).
 
However, this 3-step model of change has become out dated in the last two decades (Dawson, 1994). The major drawback of this model is that it is timely, but one must take into consideration that it is timely for any change to take place. One more issue is that during the refreezing stage many individuals are worried about the new change and they are in a change shock which causes employees to be less efficient and effective towards their jobs (Syque, 2007, www.changingminds.org). According to the arguments amongst researchers, Lewin's model is very simple and mechanical process for the corporate world where change in organizations is a constant and unlimited process (Dawson, 1994; Kanter et al., 1992; Stacey, 1993). This change model does not have the ability to fit in fundamental, transformational change and is only significant to incremental and inaccessible change projects (Dawson, 1994; Pettigrew, 1990). Lewin's change model steps also ignore the conflicting nature within the organization and role of power and politics within the organization (Dawson, 1994; Wilson, 1992). Lewin adopted a top-down management-driven approach and ignored the situations in the implementation of change where a bottom-up approach is required which resulted in difficulty for sustaining change (Dawson, 1994; Kanter et al., 1992; Wilson, 1992).
 
Kotter的8步变革模型——Kotter's Eight Step Change Model:
 
Harvard Professor John P. Kotter has been observing the process of change for over three decades now. According to him there are critical differences between change efforts that are successful and the change efforts that have failed. He is more concerned about why some people are able to change their organizations successfully in a dramatic way and why some people do not. Kotter (1996) in his book has mentioned about a list of factors that he believes lead to successful changes and also those factors that lead to the failure (Kotter, 1996). He has created an eight step method where the first four steps focus on defreezing the organizations, the next three steps make the change happen and the last step refreezes the organization with the new culture. According to Kotter (1996), if these eight steps are followed in order, the people can make big changes significantly and effectively. The first step is to create urgency for change. Here the sense of urgency about the needed change by amplifying energy and motivation is build up. This means that employees are convinced that this change is really important for the company to survive (Kotter, 1996; Rose, 2002). This is not just a matter of showing people the poor sales figures or increased competition but to convince them honestly about what is going on in the market and with the competition and if the people start discussing about the desired change, the need of urgency can build and nourish automatically (www.mindtools.com). The next step is to build a team for the change by identifying the true leaders within the organization (Kotter, 1996; Rose, 2002). This means that mobilize the leaders who are focused, committed and enthusiastic and can lead the change. In order to lead change, the organization must bring together a team of influential individuals whose power comes from a variety of sources such as job title, status, expertise and political importance within the organization (www.mindtools.com). The third step is to create a vision for change which must have a clear direction to how change will have a better effect on the future of the organization and its employees (Kotter, 1996; Rose, 2002). This means that the organization needs to determine the values that are important for a change to be implemented because a clear vision can help everyone understand what they are asked to do. The fourth step is to communicate the vision frequently and powerfully and embed it in everything the organization does. A vision clarifies the direction of the organization in which it has to move further. So, talk often about the change vision and make use of all the existing communication channels to broadcast the vision (Kotter, 1996). The fifth step is to empower employees for broad-based action, i.e., delegating and authorizing people to effect change. This can be done by engaging individuals as partners and to provide them with new opportunities to plan and take action (Kotter, 1996).#p#分页标题#e#
 
Kotter的8步变革模型——Kotter's 8-step change model

Next step is to generate short-term wins. This means planning for visible improvements in performance or wins, by creating short term goals and assisting the employees to accept the change by celebrating their progresses and creating these wins (Kotter, 1996). This means to recognize and reward people who make these wins and progresses possible. The seventh step is consolidating gains and producing more change. This means that the organization should keep on influencing more changes even after the short term goals are accomplished. After every small win, analyze what was right and what needs improvement (Kotter, 1996). The final step is to anchor new changes in the culture in order to make the change permanent. This means making the change fit into the organization's culture and practices and developing means to ensure leadership development and the successions (Kotter, 1996).
 
However, there are some drawbacks with Kotter's eight step model and these should be taken seriously while implementing the change model. One major drawback is that the organization cannot skip any of the steps mentioned above or the change process will completely fail. The other disadvantage is that this change is a very long process and takes a lot of time and resources within the organization. And according to Kotter (1996), there are eight errors associated with his eight steps to change management. These errors are to be eliminated during the change implementation. If the sense of urgency is not created, if something is not achieved early during the effort then nothing is worth. In failed transformations, there are plans, programs and directives but there is no vision. And if there is a proper vision, it is not communicated effectively throughout the organization. Sometimes, there is no power or time to get rid of obstacles but action is important and these must be confronted and removed. There is no planning of short term progresses and successes and sometimes the victory is declared too soon which results in even bigger problems (Kotter, 1996).
 
麦肯锡的7S模型:——McKinsey 7S Model:
 
McKinsey's 7S model was created by the consulting firm McKinsey and company in the 1981. Ever since then it has been extensively used by practitioners and academics to analyze hundreds of organizations. McKinsey and company conducted an applied research in business and industry for which they used this model to analyze more than 70 large organizations (Pascale and Athos, 1981; Peters and Waterman, 1982). The McKinsey 7S framework was created as an identifiable and easily remembered model. There are seven different variables which work together to form a model: strategy, systems, style, staff, skills, structure and shared values (Waterman, 1982). The model's outline, as shown below, was also designed to demonstrate the interdependency of the variables. This can also be termed as ‘managerial molecule'. The elements embodied in the model were thought to be of critical importance to managers and practitioners as the authors reflected that all variables were present within complex organizations (Peters and Waterman, 1982).
 
麦肯锡的7S模型:——McKinsey 7S Model
 
Strategy is the plan of action an organization prepares to response to or alterations in its external atmosphere. Strategy is made different by well thought and often well practically researched policies or operational actions. It deals with three important questions: where is the organization at present, where the organization wants to be in a period of time and how it should get there? Therefore, strategy makes the organization to transform from current position to new position depicted by objectives with respect to the limitations of the abilities or the potential (Ansoff, 1965). A structure is when a business has to be organized in a definite form of shape. Depending on the objectives and culture, organizations are formed in a variety of ways and the structure shows how the company performs and operates (Waterman et al., 1980). Conventionally, the businesses were designed in a hierarchical way with many departments and divisions where each of the departments was responsible for their specific task. There were many operational divisions all reporting to the upper level management. In McKinsey 7S model, the main idea is to make the organization more flexible and eliminate the middle levels of management by empowering the employees to do their work (Boyle, 2007). In order to support and implement the strategy, every organization has some systems and internal processes. By systems, McKinsey and company means the portion of the model that represents the procedures (formal and informal), processes and routines that make the organization work. Furthermore, in order to make the decision-making quicker, the organizations are simplifying and updating their procedures by improvement and using new technical know-how. The emphasis here is to make the systems more user-friendly (Lynch, 2005). Management styles and cultures vary from organization to organization. It includes all the long-term features of the organization which are developed over the time such as values, beliefs and norms. Traditionally, businesses were influenced by a military style of management and cultures were strict. But from the past 20 years there have been many efforts to change the culture to be more friendly and pioneering. So style/culture remains important concern in the implementation of any change in the organization (Martins and Terblanche, 2003). Organizations comprise of staff in the form of humans and it's the people who help organizations to reach their goals in the progressive knowledge-based society. Thus, the human resource is the most vital part in the strategy of the organization. It is important for any organization to build confidence among the employees about their future and career growth as an encouragement for hard work (Purchell and Boxal, 2003). Skills indicate the abilities and competencies of the employees and the organization to evaluate its capabilities which are essentially required for success. However, one major issue may be weeding out old skills which can result to be a major hindrance in change implementation and can result in preventing the development of new skills (Channon, 2010, www.blackwellreference.com). Shared values are the center of the model and it is what the organization believes in and replies on. The business is built on some common fundamental ideas which are shared by all members in the organization. This is important because it keeps the team spirit alive and motivates the members to work together towards a common goal. Some organizations which have weak common ideas and goals may find their employees following different directions and different personal goals that may even conflict with others in the organization (Martins and Terblanche, 2003).
 
In order to use the 7S model within the organization a thorough case study or wide-ranging material on the organization under the study is required because all the parts of business and all major parts of the organization are covered in this model. Therefore, it is necessary to gather as much information about the organization as possible from different sources such as organizational reports, news and press releases. However, primary research in the form of interviews along with the literature review is much more beneficial (Waterman, 1982). All the seven variables of the 7S model discussed above are normally categorized as soft and hard components. Strategy, structure, and systems are the hard components because these are easy to identify in the organization as they are well documented and have an evident. These are observed in the form of tangible objects and reports such as strategy, statements, corporate plans, organizational charts and other documents. The other four Ss are very difficult to comprehend. The elements of corporate culture such as the capabilities, values and elements are continuously developing and are altered in the organization during the work. Therefore in order to understand these aspects, it is necessary to study the organization more closely generally through conducting interviews and through observation. However, it is possible to make some linkages between the hard and the soft components (Boyle, 2007). The most challenging and the difficult elements of any change management strategy are the soft components. Generally it is difficult to manage the variation in culture and getting over the staff resistance to changes particularly the one that changes the power structure of the organization and the innate values within the organization. However, these factors can leave a huge impact on strategy, structure and the system of the organization if they are altered. There have been a tendency to have a more open, flexible and energetic culture in the organization over years and it is not easy where the traditional culture has been dominant for years and therefore organizations find it difficult to manage the change. This is because the central attention lies on the hard components only and the softer components are ignored a lot resulting in a failure. Similarly, it is important to take more time in understanding the soft elements and effort should be made to comprehend the organization's softer aspects while analyzing an organization using the 7S model because these values in reality move the organizations by upsetting the decision-making at all points in the organization. Therefore, to achieve higher results, the researchers must analyze the cultural aspect of the structure, processes and decisions in detail (Price and Chahal, 2006).
 
However, after looking at meaning and working of 7S model within an organization it is clearly noted that this model has two main disadvantages. First it all the parts are interrelated, so all portions must be taken care of and if one or the other part is changed, all parts change and this may result in the breakdown of the organization. The other drawback is that this model ignores the differences which have resulted falling of organizations from the top.
 
结论——Conclusion:
 
To conclude, three models are used in the research above. All the models are explained thoroughly in context to their use within the organization to change. Though all the three models are useful depending on the structure and strategy of the organization and the situation in which these should be implemented these models have a few drawbacks as well. However, overall the best choice among these models is Kotter's Eight Step Change Model. It is simple to use and it fully prepares the employees of the company before the vision is created that means the actual flow of information and the adapted form of culture is easy to understand for the employees in the long run.
 
(Word Count: 3252)
 
参考文献——References:
 
Ansoff, I. (1965), Corporate Strategy, McGraw-Hill, London
 
Balogun, J. and Hope Hailey, V. (2004), Exploring Strategic Change, 2nd Edition (London: Prentice Hall)
 
Boyle, S. (2007), Impact of changes in organizational structure on selected performance indicators for cultural organization, International Journal of Cultural Policy, vol 13, no 3, pp 319-334
 
Burnes, B. (2004), Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organizational Dynamics, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall
 
Burnes, B. (1996), No such thing as . . . a “one best way” to manage organizational change, Management Decision, vol 34, no 10, pp. 11-18
 
Carnall, C. A. (2003), Managing Change in Organizations, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall
 
Carnall, C. A. (2007), Managing Change in Organizations, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall
 
Channon, D.F., McKinsey 7S model, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management. Cooper, Cary L. Blackwell Publishing, Blackwell Reference [Online], accessed on 08/03/10 at http://www.blackwellreference.com
 
Collins, J. (2001), Good to Great: Why some companies make the lead... and others don't, New York: Harper Collins
 
Dawson, P. (1994), Organizational Change: A Processual Approach, Paul Chapman Publishing, London
 
Kanter, R.M. Stein, B.A. and Jick, T.D. (1992), The challenge of organizational change, New York Free Press
 
Kotter, J.P. (1996), Leading Change, Harvard Business School Press, Boston
 
Kotter's 8-step change model [online], available at http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_82.htm, accessed on 27/02/10
 
Kritsonis, A. (2004), Comaprison of Change theories, International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, Vol 8, No 1
 
Lewin, K. (1947), Action Research and minority problems, In G.W. Lewin and G.W. Allport (ed) (1948), Resolving Social conflict, London: Harper and Row
 
Luecke, R. (2003), Managing Change and Transition, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA
 
Lynch, R. (2005), Corporate Strategy, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall, United Kingdom
 
Martins, E. and Terblanche, F. (2003), Building organizational culture that stimulates creativity and innovation, European Journal of Innovation Management, vol 6, no 1, pp 64-74
 
Moran, J. W. and Brightman, B. K. (2001), Leading organizational change, Career Development International, vol 6, no 2, pp. 111-118
 
Okumus, F. and Hemmington, N. (1998), Barriers and resistance to change in hotel firms: an investigation at unit level, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol 10, no 7, pp. 283-288
 
Pascale, R. and Athos, A. (1981), The art of Japanese Management, London: Penguin Books
 
Peters, T. and Waterman, R. (1982), In Search of Excellence, New York, London: Harper and Row
 
Pettigrew, A.M. (1990), Longitudinal field research on change: theory and practice, Organizational Science, vol 3, no 1, pp 267-292
 
Price, A. and Chahal, K. (2006), A strategic framework for change management, Construction Management and Economics, vol 24, no 3, pp 237-251
 
Purcell, J. and Boxal, P. (2003), Strategy and Human resource Management (Management, Work and Organizations), Palgrave Macmillan, United Kingdom
 
Robbins, S (2003), Organizational Behavior, 10th Edition, Prentice Hall, NJ, pp 564-565
 
Rose, K.H. (2002), Leading change: A model by John Kotter, Business Source Elite [on-line], available at www.ebscohost.com, accessed on 07/03/10
 
Schein, E.H. (1996), Kurt Lewin's change theory in the field and in the classroom: notes towards a model of management learning, Systems Practice, Vol 9, No 1, pp 27-47
 
Stacey, R.D. (1993), Strategic Management and Organizational Dynamics, London: Pitman
 
Syque (2007), Lewin's freeze phases, available on Changing Minds Website [on-line], http://www.changingminds.org/discipline/change_management/lewin_change/lewin_change.htm, accessed on 07/03/10
 
The change management model, Dudley Consulting, Inc. [online], available at http://www.dudleyconsulting-inc.com/changemgtmodel.html, accessed on 07/03/10
 
Waterman, R. (1982), The seven elements of strategic fit, Journal of Business Strategy, vol 3, pp 68-72
 
Waterman, R, Peters, T. and Phillips, J.R. (1980), Structure is not organization, McKinsey Quarterly, Summer, pp 2-20
 
Wilson, D.C. (1992), A Strategy of Change, London: Routledge
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