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留学生coursework写作范文参考

时间:2015-12-17 17:07来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:anne 点击:
Introduction介绍
 
音乐人包括许多,作曲,演奏或表演的音乐;同时,公司和机构负责创建和分发录制音乐。有许多方法来获利,比如卖音乐录音机,开演唱会,印刷音乐出版商,在音乐产业工程,开专卖店的零售或在线。音乐产业是一个由组织、企业和个人组成的复杂系统,它的商业结构过于复杂,不能够清晰地描述。经过二十一个世纪的巨大变化,其目前的结构仍在进行不断的变化。正如其名称所暗示的,音乐产业意味着与音乐有关的东西,或音乐母公司,如体育和图书出版业;非音乐产业指的是完全不相关的音乐,如消费行业,企业对商业行业,产品为基础的产业,服务为基础的产业,等等。每一个现象或对象都会有一些共同之处,以及一些不能与他人分享的独特个性,在下面的段落中,我们要选择最典型的非音乐产业的例子,来说明它与音乐产业的相似之处。

The music industry is also called music business, it means the industry which makes money by creating and selling music, or products relevant to music, it can be companies or individuals. In which, many individuals are the musicians, composing, playing or performing the music; while companies and organizations are responsible for creating and distributing recorded music. There are many ways to gain profit, such as selling music recorders, holding a concert, printing music publishers, engineering in music industry, open stores retail or online. Music industry is a complicated system consisting of various organization, enterprise and individuals, its commercial structure is too complex to depict clearly. After going through the tremendous changes in 21st century, its current structure is still undergoing continuous changes. Just as the name implies, music industry means something relevant to music, or music parent companies, such as sports and book publishing); non-music industries means something totally irrelevant to music, such as consumer industries, business to business industries, products-based industries , service-based industries,and so on. Every phenomena or object will have something in common with others, as well as some unique character which can not be shared with others, in following paragraph, we would like to choose two typical examples of non-music industry and to show the parallels between it and music industry.

Parallel with stock market平行股市

股市是一个企业,它是将其资产为n个部分,成为像人们通常所说的联合股份公司。持有这些资产的人被称为公司的股东。现在国家建立了一个交易平台。当公司上市时,股东可以与其他投资者进行交易。
股票市场是股票发行和交易的场所,它包括一级市场和交易市场。联合股份公司通过发行股票向社会迅速积累大量资金,实现生产规模化管理。与分散的投资者在社会上有多余的资本投资在联合股份公司的基础上“共享利益,共同承担风险”,寻求财富的升值。在音乐行业,它有类似的东西,市场作为一块磁铁,吸引演员的群体整合,它扮演着一个网,连接创建,分发,解释和传播有关音乐的市场信息。

Stock market is an enterprise, which divides its assets into n parts, and become the joint stock company as people normally say. Those who hold these assets are called shareholders of the company. Now nation sets up a transaction platform. When the company goes public, shareholders can transact their shares with other investors.
Stock market is a place where stocks are issued and transacted, it includes primary market and trading market. Joint stock company accumulates large amount of capital rapidly and achieves the scale management of production through issuing stocks to society. And the scattered investors in society who have surplus capital invest in joint stock company based on “ sharing benefits together, undertaking risks together” to seek the appreciation of wealth. In music industry, it has something similar, the market serves as a magnet to attract groups of actors consolidates, it plays as a net, connecting creation, distribution, interpretation and dissemination of information about the music market. [1]
History of stock exchange market can be traced back to 400 years ago, it was built in a security exchange called Amsterdam security exchange in Holland. On September 22nd 2000, Amsterdam security exchange declared to merge with Brussel security exchange and establish the first transnational and unilateral stock exchange. Speaking of Chinese stock market, Shanghai and Shenzhen stock market is a nation wide stock developed from a local market. There were only several stocks in quite small scale when it officially started business in December 1990. At that time, there were only several local stocks, due to the lack of consideration in strategy, dilatation in capital did not match dilatation in stock, especially capital dilatation, its developing speed goes far beyond stock dilatation. While the origin of music industry can be dated to 18th century, at that time, most of formal music composition and printing had assistance from the noble and church. In the middle and late 18th century, such performer and composer like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart started to seek commercial opportunities to market their music and performance to normal public.After that his successors continued to promote his music commercial process. In 19th century, the sheet-music publishers dominated music industry. At the end of this century, an organization called Din Ban Ally dominating in popular music publishing and song writing emerged in U.S.A. In beginning of 20th century, recording began to become the breakthrough technology in music market. With the invention of phonograph in 1877 and appearance of broadcast radio, the way how to hear music has met dramatically and forever change. Opera, concert and club continued to create music and live performance, even the most unknown bands can prevail the whole world thanks to the power of wireless radio. Little by little, recording industry eventually replaced sheet music publishers and became the number one in music industry. With the ups and downs of many recording companies, at the end of 1980’s, six big guiders became predominant: EMI, CBS, BMG, PolyGram, WEA and ECA. In 21st century, consumers even spent less money in music recording and composition than in 1990’s. According to data from IFPI, world total revenue in CD, tape and digital download has decreased from $38.6 billion in 1999 to $27.5 billion in 2008. Economists and reports from New York Times said that this declining trend will be maintained in the predictable future. To make a general survey of history, the trend is just like the music stave, bounced note is telling the experience from emergency, growth, prosper, recession and resumption. Not only means the trend for music and stock industry, but also applies for all industries in the world, it is like a circle. The most important thing for us to do is to amplify the effective benefit and shorten the recession period.
The three most developed stock markets in the world are in Japan, the United Kingdom and the U.S.A. Between 1982 and 1993, world stock market were booming, it market capital increased from $2 trillion to $10 trillion, which is an average 15 percent a year. In order to collect information about an integrated stock market, scholars made investigations of survey data from 41 countries in the world, but every indicator has its statistical shortcomings, so they adopted different methods, such as stock market size, liquidity, concentration, development and international integration to make a fair judgment.[2] Starting from around 2007, Chinese stock market welcomed a bull market, it seemed people all over China entered the stock market overnight. It should be cautious if all the people invested the same project, as expected, it soon fell into a bear market afterwards. No blossom period can match that period until the end of 2014. Trading is so frenetic in April 2015, volumes surpassed the limits of the software that tracks transactions. In spite of the frenzy, the central bank took actions to withdraw money into financial system. Under the intervention of People’s Bank China, it set free around 1.3 trillion yuan for new lending. Instead of targeting the stock market, its purpose is to keep prices stable and to support economic growth. Compared with the uncertain stability of stock market and macro-control from government, stability of music industry is comparatively smooth. In 2014 the total revenue of global music industry almost kept unchanged: $14.97 billion. Digital music revenue increased 6.9%, reaching $6.9 billion, occupying 46% of the global music distribution.For the profit channel of music industry, it mainly comes from four parts: tape recording, live performance, manage for artiest and employee, and other revenue income.Tape recording business creates and sell three categories of commodity: music work, recordings and media. A music work is created by composer or writer, it was originally belonged to composer,and the composer may sell the publishing right to another party. A publishing contract can explicitly indicate the business relationship between copyright owner and publish company. Recording is normally completed by artiest with the help of recording producer and audio engineers. From it’s finishing to publishing, it will have cost in business alliance fees, mechanical royalty fee, duty-free commodity, compensation charge and bonus.In live performance, the promoters will set up a contract with artists, owner of performing site and arrangers. For the tour performance, the manager or company of artists can consult with recording company and they will sponsor the performance. Artists can also hire someone from other fields to support and assist their career, and they will receive commission according to certain percentage from artists’ revenue. For other incomes, a successful artist will build their own brand in market, and promote much income revenue accordingly. Recently, the music industry has repeatedly showed concerns over the impacts of online music sharing. With the development of internet, on-line music and promotion is an element which can not be ignored for broadening music market.[3] Overall, though in music industry there is fluctuation, the fluctuated degree is not as big as stock market. At least, it could be predicted and avoided.


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