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时间:2015-12-25 10:39来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

Globalisation Mega Events And Urban Change Tourism Essay



One of the trends witnessed by cities is the race to claim a position in the global market and the neo-liberal state doe this by organising sporting events. According to the world cities thesis, the rise of a global economy is driving cities to find an economic niche within the regional or world economy'. [2] Internationalisation of sport itself has made it a profitable venture to invest upon. These events are catalyst for urban restructuring, the city creating a visual spectacle of 'the world class' city. Advocates of mega events perceive that organising these mega-events is profitable venture for the hosting countries, bringing in huge investments to the country, the wide-scale media coverage, urban transformation, employment opportunities, tourism and cultural promotion. However, promises backing the events need to be explored further. Whereas critics argue that on the pretext of hosting these events there is entire urban restructuring, malls, fly-overs, up gradation of transport system that displace large number of marginalised population to the hinterlands. The cause of concern here is with displacement of huge number of people from the urban geography. Neo-libaeral states achieves this by criminalising their presence, demolishing their residences and evacuating them to hinterlands with inadequate infrastructural facilities.
This paper engages with these issues though briefly, the paper is structured as follows: Section one is on Globalisation and Mega Sport Events, section two, deals with Mega Event and Urban change. Section four, relates with the issues centring the upcoming Commonwealth Games 2010 in Delhi, followed up by conclusion.

II.全球化和许多体育事件——II. Globalisation and Mega Sport Events

Globalisation led to commodifcation of sports, which was facilitated by the advancement in information technology and satellite television. [3] Andreff notes that sports became a profitable investment with television friendly time zones of specific countries and consequently led to an increase in the viewership pattern of sporting events. Western countries continued to dominate its colonies through internationalisation of sports tennis, soccer, rugby, cricket were popularised in the non-western countries. Radio was the initial medium through which sports was broadcasted, after Second World War globalisation of sports took off with societies greater engagement with sports, sports as such was consumed in many forms sport practice, sport press, and sport shows. Second with the advancement in technology, television was the channel through which sports could be viewed live and was accessible to greater audience and thirdly the emergence of current information and communication technologies were images are transmitted within seconds [4] . Organising sport events was recognised as an investment to economise on.
Andreff notes number of outcome due to globalisation of sports, greater the audience for a sporting event higher the revenues accrued from advertisement. There are specialised sport sponsors such as Coco Cola, Pepsi, Fuji, Panasonic, Nike, Puma etc. Sports in itself becomes a field for marketing. [5]
Television remains the biggest market for broadcasting sport events, one event can be broadcasted to more than 220 countries [6] . In India television was dominated by the government till the 80s, in 1994 Board for the Control of Cricket in India (BCCI) struck a deal with international market ESPN and India had its own sports channel ESPN India [7] . Improved technology, communication, satellite created a global market for sports, so much so that developing countries became the market for international sports. India had monopolised cricket with its success in creating its own version of cricket the IPL (Indian Premier League) which is more of like an entertainment package of Bollywood and the sports. IPL has a success story because of huge advertising revenues that it gains from its own market and from ticket sales; it has a huge mass appeal. [8] India's team is acknowledged in the world of cricket, globalisation is the major force behind its popularity, and hockey being the national sport of the country gets a stepchild treatment not seen as profitable sport to invest on.
Globalisation of sport events reaches its highest point with genuine global sport events such as Olympic Games and football (soccer) World Cups' [9] . Popularity of Gaming events have increased over the years Summer Olympics in Los Angeles 1984 140 countries participated and in the recent Beijing Olympics 11,028 athletes competed from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs).
Horne and Manzenreiter identify three reasons for the expansion and popularity of these mega-events. First, due to the expansion of satellite television, there is competition among countries to buy the rights to broadcast these events. For the recent Beijing Olympics NBC (US Corporation) paid around US$894 million, EBU (European Broadcasting Union) paid US$ 443 million, Canadian Broadcasters paid around US$45 million for the rights to transmit the pictures. Second reason for increasing popularity is due to the alliance between the sport and the business groups. Entire packaging of sporting event has undergone change with sponsorship rights, broadcasting rights and merchandizing that had facilitated viewership to larger audience. Third, organising such events is an opportunity to advertise oneself. [10] Hosting countries are in race to advertise themselves as the 'world class city' with all basic infrastructural facilities. Brings in greater opportunity to the entertainment industry for commercial and property dealers etc. [11] as an excellent tourist destination, with world-class infrastructure and facilities.

III.重大事项和城市大转变——III. Mega-Events and Urban Makeover

This section reviews some of the mega-events organised by the countries and subsequent impacts. Mega-events also refereed as "hallmark events" or "landmark events", they are large-scale events with worldwide significance such as Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, FIFA World Cup and World Fairs, with the intention of drawing tourist, business investments and media attention to the host country, leading to complete restructuring of the city.
Literature on mega-events and urban change are outpouring with evidences regarding changes these events guarantees the host countries. Staging mega-events are seen as a catalyst for urban change to enhance their image at the global front. World witnessed significant changes since 1990s, free trade, deregulation, increased competition between different countries to organise events of grand scale. An opportunity to the host an event of such a scale is never missed and is considered as once in a lifetime opportunity. Such events are prospects for the countries to advertise its rich history, culture and tourism. Staging events bring in employment opportunities though temporary until the event is hosted or even before that. For example, construction workers who migrate to cities to build in infrastructural facilities for the event like sports village, stadiums, swimming pools, training grounds etc. they form the new history of urban spaces and in future city spaces are defined by them. The central motive that runs through staging these events is economic, in 1992 for the Barcelona Olympic games, public investment created was US$6.3 billion, unemployment decreased comparatively around 20,000 jobs opportunities were created which helped Barcelona recovering from economic crisis that effected Europe in 1980-1990s. However, majority of the jobs were temporary and low paying. [12]
Black posits hosting events by the countries is a strategy to reframe itself through usage of narratives that are visible through media. In the bidding process tentative countries have to prove themselves as capable host to organise an event of a large scale. Things are not so transparent sceptics point out sporting events reshape the attitudes and culture of the host country; it exposes especially the developing countries to the international market. [13] This calls for entire transformation of the urban topography and commodification of the city spaces, the city infrastructure are perceived as potential investments to price on. [14]
Not much is written on the cultural impact of these events on the hosting countries. Staging these events, the host country invites a display of global culture to the city locals likewise the city has to adapt to the global culture. Through these events developed countries continue to dominate and hegemonic power over the developing countries. [15] Critics have challenged the very idea of mega-event for creating social inequalities. Benefits are unequally divided amongst the rich and the poor with the former gaining the most out of it and the least affected by urban restructuring. Urban restructuring happens without accounting the poor; housing and development projects remain anti-poor. This can be exemplified from analysing some of the past events hosted by different countries. Barcelona Olympics 1992, invested huge amounts for construction of roads and transport facilities, offices, commercial property, hotels and sports complex across the city. Around 624 families were displaced in total, 400 families for Olympics Village, 20 families from the Olympics stadium, 200 families for the construction of the roads and other facilities. More than 400 homeless from the streets persecuted and incarcerated. Cost and rental for housing increased between 1986 and 1993. [?€¨] 16?€??€¨17?€?Housing prices rose substantially making it difficult for the locals to afford.
Horne and Manzenreiter point out that organising a sporting event has both economic and social benefits. 'Economically it has been viewed as an industry around which cities can devise urban regeneration strategies. Socially it has been viewed as a tool for the development urban communities and reduction of social exclusion and crime' [18] Under urban clearance norms months before an events are hosted shanty houses are demolished they are perceived as places from where crime instigates.
Atlanta Olympic Games 1996, 30,000 people affected due to urban gentrification, displacement. Around 2000 housing units were demolished leading to displacement of 6000 people. Another 9000 poor were incarcerated between 1995-96. [19] In 2002 Manchester Commonwealth Games was means for urban re-imaging and to recover from the due to relocation of the engineering and chemical industries. Sporting events is more like business venture. In Athens Olympics 2004, 2700 people affected due to evictions and displacement, relocation plans were cancelled by the government leaving the locals with little choices. Athens Olympics guaranteed subsidised housing facility for 10,000 residents but with no proper amenities for sustained a livelihood. [20]
Events being hosted by developing countries has altogether got different implication one, they have to bear high infrastructural cost, second, many of the construction stadiums, training centres go under utilised once the event gets over and the yearly maintenance cost of these structures is high. Third, they fail to draw visitors for the events ending up in loss. [21] The very recent Beijing 2008 Olympics Games, China underwent drastic change to re-brand itself as the new 'international metropolis', 22 new stadiums were built, 15 renovated facilities, two new ring roads, 142 miles new infrastructure, eight new subway lines, 252 hotels 40 km clean river bed and green belt across the city. The event was branded as "Green Olympics", the "Technological Olympics" and the "People's Olympics" merely to justify the budget of $42 billion which was 10 times greater than the 2004 Athens budget. [22]
Urban researcher and architect Laurence points out such massive urban projects do not have stand functioning instead of investing in new projects countries should concentrate on the existing infrastructural details. Previous examples,
1960 Rome and 1964 Tokyo built new infrastructural projects, 1972 Munich built social housing, while Atlanta and Los Angeles refurbished existing sports facilities. The 1996 Barcelona and 2000 Sydney Games were successful urban regenerations, while 2004 Athens and 1976 Montreal were deemed unsustainable failures leaving behind unused stadiums and huge debts. [23]
The Bird's nest Stadium built in Beijing for the Olympics requires maintenance of about US$15 million. Not everything is so doomed since the housing facilities constructed created good business for the real estate but led to inflation of house rentals and was precisely unaffordable for the city locals. Around 1.5 million Beijing citizens were evicted and displaced to the hinterlands. Estimated 60,000 homes per year were demolished between 2006-2008, displacing 156,000 people. Leading to extreme poverty, many forceful evictions and arrested as defaulters of housing rights. [24] The migrant workers who built the main infrastructural structures were sent back to their native land.
Theorist and scholars note that the neo-liberal state host such events to economise on it but the benefits are unevenly divided. It is a profitable investment for the selected minority, politicians, media groups, property dealers, and the educated class but sectional majority the poor are ignored. Large section of the public expenditure is invested in organising the event on a grand scale which cuts down on the social welfare schemes. [25

IV.2010年在德里的联邦游戏——IV. Commonwealth Games in Delhi 2010.

Commonwealth Games was known as the British Empire in the 1930s, later the name was changed to British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1954 and later in 1978 changed to the current name Commonwealth Games. The Game is held every four years. Commonwealth Games had been held twice in developing countries Jamaica in 1966 and Malaysia in 1988 whereas U.K., Canada, Australia and New Zealand have hosted the event the maximum. [26] Third time the event is passed on to a developing country India second time to be held in Asia after Kaula Lampur in 1998. The event was last held in Melbourne, Australia in 2006. India won the bid with the margin of forty six votes to twenty two wining against Canada [27] .
The entire city is being restructured, India witnessed a similar games event in 1982- the Asian Games. For the Asian Games the city went through a complete change to play the host well and to put up the best show. Preparations started late in 1980s city was sprawled with construction of fly over, Games village, sports stadiums etc. The event didn't bring in great profits for India, construction works were not completed in time, roof of Talkatora stadium remained incomplete. The estimated expenditure for the entire event was around 7-10,000 million rupees, revenues collected was small; expected number of travellers did not visit, most of the hotels were vacant. [28]
To treat the foreign visitors lakhs of rupees was spent for the Asian games when the country witnessed its worst famine. Large amount was spent for constructions of various sites: Stadiums (Talkatora, Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the Indira Gandhi Indoor stadium and the Yamuna Velodrome), Hotels (Kanishka, The Mughal Sheraton, and the Taj Palace), and the Asiad Village in addition too this number of roads and flyovers were constructed across the city. Ring roads and flyovers (Moolchand, Sewa and Oberoi flyovers) constructed during the time to ease out traffic is now part of the city life. Construction work had impact on Delhi there was wide scale effect on the environment, increased pollution, and unchecked constructions. Migrant workers flocked in who were placed in temporary housing colonies juggis and were paid less than the minimum wages. PILS were filled by PUDR (People's Union for Democratic Rights) as construction workers for being paid less than the minimum wages, was 'forced labour' as defined by the Supreme Court. The city also undertook barbaric act of sanitizing the Delhi streets were number of homeless people were incarcerated under the Bombay Prevention of the Begging Act. One of the developments India witnessed in the entertainment sector was the introduction of colour television that added to the promotion of the games. [29]
The city yet again is undergoing sea change with unprecedented construction work for the upcoming Commonwealth Games 2010. India is the third developing country to host the event of such a grand scale. Delhi aims to enhance its economic growth and development and to upgrade its urban image. Hosting such a mega-event should not be seen in isolation only as a means for urban restructuring and to portray an image of 'world class' city but one needs to understand the politics that runs behind hosting such events.
City is undergoing massive change to promote itself. The structural changes are bridge being constructed at Wazirabad, flyovers and roads are constructed and renovated. Modern transport system the metro rail introduced to keep up with the image of "world class" city, construction work is on for completion of the second phase, benefiting only certain sections of the society. Games Village is being constructed at the Yamuna riverbed which will have 'a€| facilities for recreation, commercial activities, hospitals, training, shopping and living, all at hand'. [30]
Delhi government is growing strong with the intention of beautifying the city by clearing of the poor from the streets. Newspapers have reported cases where bulldozers are razed down over the temporary shelters, leaving many people homeless and destitute to the streets without any relocation plans. They are being charged as encroachers and for squatting on to the roads. [31] Slum dwellers have been evacuated from Yamuna Pushta to the city peripheries, workers/labourers who had migrated to the city in 1980s to build stadiums and sports complexes for the Asian Games. [32]
To deal with the beggar menace before the Games; Delhi's Social Welfare Minister had deputed Mobile courts on the city streets. Over six lakh hawkers are being evacuated from the city. They are not necessarily beggars but people engaged in minor works in the city, most of them are labourers, street vendors, blacksmiths etc. They are tried immediately and if found guilty they are sent to any one shelter twelve shelter homes in Delhi that are already jam-packed or to places from where they have migrated. The Act is not only about criminalizing the poor but a serious violation of Human Rights, their rights to livelihood, expression and movement.

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