代写 TAG标签
网站地图
返回首页

创造识别和演化的女性主义的性别

时间:2016-04-02 17:08来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网 点击:
摘要:文章主要是说“性别是必要的?终极版?施为行为和性别宪法的女权主义巴特勒”由科学小说家厄休拉·勒奎恩K.Le创作,并写入在20世纪女权主义散文示范。巴特勒集中在的创作是鉴定和性别的演变,她认为挡泥板识别被表述行动,一个持续的过程,而吉恩体现了她创造的意象社会,人变得不男不女的想法。吉恩更像是一个小说家,在她的文章中的性别进化的问题没有讨论。
Abstract: The essay “Is gender necessary? Redux?” written by a science fictionist Ursula K.Le Guin, and “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution” by a feminist Judith Butler are exemplary essays about feminist in 20 century. Butler focused on the about the creation, identify and evolution of the gender and she thought that the fender identify was a continuous process by perfomraitve act, while Guin reflected her idea on creating the imagery society that the human became androgoynous. Guin was more like a novelist and did not discuss on the gender evolution problem in her essay.
 
这两种阅读材料在这个过程中,“性别是必要的?终极版?“(1988年吉恩)由科学小说家娥苏拉·勒瑰恩写的,”施为行为和性别宪法“(巴特勒,1995年),由一个女权主义者约有20世纪女权主义散文示范。两位作者的谈到了性,性别和社会性别对比,但一些差异,如在这两篇文章的目的和思想,语言风格存在。The two reading materials in this course, “Is gender necessary? Redux?” (Guin 1988) written by a science fictionist Ursula K. Le Guin, and “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution” (Butler, 1995) by a feminist are exemplary essays about feminist in 20 century. Both of authors talked about the sex, gender and the gender indentify, but some differences such as the purpose and thought, and the language style in these two essays exist.
 
Judith Butler in her essay “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution” (Butler 1995) explained her opinions on the creation, identify and evolution of the gender. Before the emergence of Feminist, the body, gender and sexuality were usually misused without discrimination in the research, i.e., scholars thought at the body determined the sex determination, but also sexuality. Feminist theory strongly questioned this decision. But for long time, in order to safeguard the common interests of feministic women, feminist usually construct the female stable identity on the basis of the binary opposition of men and women, thereby giving women a unified political position --- against patriarchy. Butler believed that when feminist criticized traditional gender perspective at the same time, they followed some of the traditional way of thinking and perspectives of gender, which restrained the theory and feminist political career. One key problem: feminism insisted that gender differences were fundamental and the condition of female psychology and subjectivity formation. In this regard, Butler was influenced by French feminist Simone de Beauvoir's theory. Beauvoir had a famous saying: “one is not born, but, rather, becomes a woman (Beauvour 1974)”.
 
Although Beauvoir acknowledged gender differences, but she did not think that the gender determined body; she believed that although people's sex is an accomplished fact, but his/her gender identity was open and can be changed. For Butler, she thought that sex was primarily of a cultural and social construction of gender.
 
Moreover, by utilizing the theory of speech act, theater performance, and phenomenological theory, Butler discussed how gender was constructed by performing acts of physical and language. Butler said, body was not just material, but a process that identity continued to materializing. A person not only has a body, but more importantly, his execution to do his/her own body. Therefore, she thought that the body was a historical existence, depending on the repeat performances and to produce a certain attitude and actions. Physical act itself gives individual identity, this identity, including gender, ethnicity and other aspects. 
 
However, Butler’s theory has some problems. First, First, Butler's theory did not have a moral standard. Performative theory emphasized that in different contexts repeating perfomrance process includes a form of resistant, standardized the "re-name" that produced a difference. But the problem is that the effect of this resistance is positive or negative? Is just, or reactionary? In the process of Performative construction, how does the individual fulfill the moral responsibility and obligation? Second, due to long term ignoring the collaboration with collectivism, women and other gender minorities unity, As pointed out by Jagger, Butler's performative theory was criticized for being "politically weak" (Jagger 2008). Butler questioned the "woman" concept, emphasizing the female identity differences. This radical idea of identity politics made obtaining the power of the female population become difficult.
 
On the other hand, the essay “Is gender necessary? Redux?” is a modified version for Guin’s previous essay of "Is Gender Necessary?" (Guin 1976), first published in 1976. In this essay Guin reflected her opinions on her popular book, “The left hand of darkness” (Guin 1969), a science fiction about feminist. In this novel Guin barely composed a fictional called Gethe. On this plant, different from the human beings on the earth, the human became androgoynous, and they have an oestrus period, called Kemmer (something like our flowers). By inventing this imaginary plant, the writer described an artificial society that men and women were equal to address her feminist.
 
Actually, she projected her feminist into this imagery Utopia sociality: no war and exploitation in this world; and people lived in a group, so that they can find a partner, not in a city or urban as our human. In the second version of this essay, “Is gender necessary? Redux?”, she further repeated this idea and reflected her opinions on this novel. Therefore, this essay is first a review for her previous book and essay. In a word, Butler focused on the creation, identify and evolution of the gender and she thought that the fender identify was a continuous process by perfomraitve act, while Guin reflected her idea on creating the imagery society that the human became androgoynous. Guin is more like a novelist and did not discuss on the gender evolution problem in her essay.

References

Butler, Judith., (1995), Performative Acts and Gender Constitutionin W. B. Worthen ed. Modern Drama: Plays /Criticism/Theory ( Fortworth: Harcourt College Publisher,pp.1098.
Butler, Judith (1999), Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity,2nd edition ( New York and London: Routledge.
Guin, Ursula K. Le.(1969), The left hand of darkness, Published by Berkley Publishing group, New York.
Guin, Ursula K. Le.(1976) , Redux ls Gender. Necessary? The language of the night: 


推荐内容
  • 英国作业
  • 美国作业
  • 加拿大作业
  • 英国essay
  • 澳洲essay
  • 美国essay
  • 加拿大essay
  • MBA Essay
  • Essay格式范文
  • 澳洲代写assignment
  • 代写英国assignment
  • Assignment格式
  • 如何写assignment
  • case study
  • literature review
  • Research Proposal
  • Summary范文
  • Reference格式
  • presentation
  • report格式
  • PEST分析法
  • Admission Essay
  • Personal Statement
  • Motivation Letter
  • Application Letter
  • recommendation letter