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个别员工的工作和贡献

时间:2016-04-26 09:19来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

个别员工的工作和贡献
The work and contribution of individual employees

 

该组织承认人力资源的重要性,因为组织目标将通过员工的工作和贡献(Abbasi and Hollman,2000)。人力资源也被认为是组织成功的关键因素,可以决定一个组织能否生长或生存。因此,投资人力资源或人力资源的发展对于任何组织和国家是很重要的。

今天全球竞争也使其在劳动力市场,加强知识员工的短缺,强调人力资源管理的重要性(Bratton and Gold 2003)。组织随着革命趋势不断发展:加速产品和技术的变化,全球竞争,放松管制,人口结构的变化,同时,他们必须努力实现履带转向服务和信息时代社会(凯恩,2000)。在其业务部门成为一个成功的组织,经常需要的问题是组织能够获得最优秀的人才,激励员工提高性能,保持他们满意和忠诚,发展员工,这样他们就可以成长和贡献的技能,并最终留住这些员工(Fitz-enz,2000)。有天赋的员工的组织,它有更多的机会在竞争对手中获得竞争优势。员工在同一组织中,工作长时间的人才能得到他们的工作和组织提供的培训。在特定工作或组织的功能区域,人才参与经验水平被定义为几个月或几年的经验。

如今,员工流动的解释是组织的严重的问题,因为员工流动是最令人沮丧的地区之一,高员工流动率可以为许多企业感到沮丧。它跨越所有类型和规模的组织从低技术高科技和金融销售(White,1995)。

The organisation recognises in the important of human resource because the organisation objectives will be achieved through the work and contribution of individual employee (Abbasi and Hollman, 2000). The human resource is also regarded as the key success factor of the organisation which can determine as to whether an organisation can grow or survive. Therefore, the investment human resource or development of human resource is important for any organisation and the nation.

Global competition today has also made its mark on the labour market, intensifying the shortage of knowledge employees and highlighting the importance of Human Resource Management (Bratton and Gold 2003). The organisations constantly flight with revolutionary trends: accelerating product and technological changes, global competition, deregulation, demographic changes, and the same time, they must try to implement treads towards a service and information age society (Kane, 2000). Becoming a successful organisation in its business sector often involves the issue of acquiring the best talent for the organisation, motivating employees to improve performance, keeping them satisfied and loyal, developing employee so they can grow and contribute skills, and ultimately retaining those employees (Fitz-enz, 2000) .The organisation that has got the talent employee, it has more chance to take the competitive advantages over the competitor. Employee who works in same orgainisation long time can get the talent from their work and the training that organisation provides to them. The talent is involved with experience levels which are defined as the months or years of experience in the particular job or functional area of organisation.

Nowadays, explanation of employee turnover is the serious problem for organisation because employee turnover is one of the most frustrating areas and high employee turnover rates can be frustrating for many businesses. It cuts across every type and size of organisation from low tech to high tech and from finance to sales (White, 1995). It is widely believed that a high amount of employee turnover influences organisational effectiveness (Hom and Griffeth, 1995). When the employee leaves the orgainasation, it costs the organisation, both in replacement costs and work disruption (Hellman, 1997). The replacement cost is divided in to two forms, visible and hidden cost. The visible costs include the costs of termination, advertising, recruitment, selection, hiring, orientation, training, and signing bonus. The hidden costs are underestimated. They include the cost from disruption of customer relations, the vacancy cost until the position is filled, and the cost resulting from disruption of work flow. Moreover, there is the temporary loss of production (Abbasi and Hollman, 2000).

The current social development plan in Thailand has focused on human resources development, quality of people and quality of education system. But, it was unsuccessful. The organsations both private and government sectors in Thailand still has faced with human resource problems in several years. Not only the quality of people and quality of education but high employee turnover rate is also the problem which has been a chronic problem since 1985. Employees change their jobs quite often, they do not have loyalty toward the organisations. The causes of the problem may result from many reasons both employees themselves and the organisations.

Due to the problem, employee retention is one of the leading challenges for the companies in Thailand. And many companies use the wrong tactics to retain employees. There are many reasons why the company has got the high employee turnover. It may cause from company itself such as company's culture, strategy or anything else that concern about its environment. The company has to find out the factors that related to employee turnover to create the strategies in order to retain them. "Employee retention is king" is used to describe retention of key workers as the most in the future (Frank et al. 2004). Frank and Taylor (2003) argue that there is no issue of greater importance than employee retention and is a growing concern for many employers. To understand what encourages commitment and the retention of employees, it is relevant to understand motivational factors since motivation is a central field of HRM (Lindmark and Onnevik, 2005)

To develop employee retention strategy in order to minimise the employee turnover, the organisation needs to meet the demands of their employees. From the survey of Thai workers, many employees said they seek competitive compensation and benefits, a friendly work environment, fair management, and a pension plan that offers security after retirement. Employees give numerous reasons for being dissatisfied with an organisation, such as long working hours, a poor supervisor, and general disorganisation. As note, good interpersonal relations and respect are important to the retention of employees.

Over the years, researchers have developed partial answer to answer question "Why do people leave?" and "Why do they stay?" that are challenging. More specifically, given alternatives, people stay if they are satisfied with their jobs and committed to their organisations and leave if they aren't (Mitchell et al., 2001)

To manage turnover effectively, corporations must monitor not only the extent of turnover but also its costs (Wilson, 2000). The organisation should do about managing retention because of the negative impact of turnover on the organisation. Moreover, it is important to remember that turnover can have a negative impact on the individual, especially if a person is leaving because of problems that could have been prevented. If the departure is involuntary, there are the usual issues about performance that could have been avoided.

So, to reduce the employee turnover, the company should determine potential solution by retaining them. There are many ways to retain the employee to work in the company in order to retain their talent. One alternative way which can reduce high employee turnover is studying the factors related to intention to leave the job of employee that can be indentified following internal and external factors.


1.2 专业服务行业的背景——1.2 Background of professional service industry

The professional services industry is the industries whose products and services are based on professional expertise rather than on discrete products or commodities. Professional services often involve expert advice but routine operations, transactions processing, design work, and project supervision are also included in the industry. The professional services industry is also called services industry, scientific industry, professional scientific, technical industry, and technical services industry. This industry includes accounting, advertising and marketing, architecture, consulting, engineering, information technology, legality, and scientific research services. The industry does not include insurance, securities, or real estate brokerage services. The professional organisations consist mainly of professional staffs with various levels of expertise, along with support personnel with technical or clerical skills. A usual customer project is supervised by senior staff and executed by junior professionals and support staff.

The demand of professional services industry is driven by corporate profits and the economic situation. Many corporate customers cut external expenses or delay the projects when the profit is low. Moreover, although some professional services are necessary for the normal function of most companies but many services can be cut down during economic downturns. Normally, the professional services organisatsions need to face the greater risk from customers filing the court case because of the involvement of organisation in the operations of corporate customers. They can be blamed or liability if their advice proves faulty.

Nowadays, the perception of professional services has changed. In the past, professionals could sit in the office to wait for customers. But now they need to take active approach to visit potential customers and offer some valuable services because there is a crucial competition in this industry. The customers have more alternatives to make the comparison prior to the decision.

As the global financial crisis produce negative impacts to economies around the world, professional services organisations such as legal consulation firms, management consultation firms and surviving financial institutions try to protect the profitability and growth. One of their strategies is seeking new innovative methods to capture more market shares by better leveraging their knowledge workforce. This involves setting real network across functions aimed at widen opportunities of the organisations. Traditionally, the successful professional services organisations have grown by structuring into specialised practice areas. This causes them to develop the expertise to solve the complex problems and differentiate themselves in the market. For example, law firms have developed area of expertise such as mergers and acquisitions, litigation, tax and intellectual property to mirror the needs of their clients. (source)



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