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营销组合的定义

时间:2016-04-29 17:08来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:
营销组合的定义
Definition of marketing mix
 

产品
 
在市场引入一个新产品涉及大量的市场调研。在全球市场上,市场研究为组织提供了当前的市场趋势和竞争对手的信息。市场研究行业还将提供详细的客户需求的研究。在启动一个特定的产品的过程中,价格,地点和推广元素也起着至关重要的作用。所有以上这些4p将形成产品的生命周期。
 
产品的决定性因素还包括品牌名称、保证,包装,以及产品的和服务(Jobber, D. 2007:p.19)
 
EA从一开始被生产软件灵活的硬件在游戏的早期阶段,是非常著名的。1983年,EA的第一个产品被运输,它是雅达利800个游戏玩家的游戏。他们也开始生产游戏commodore 64位电脑。“Skyfox”是EA开发的游戏,特别是苹果II型电脑和它成为一个巨大的打击(Fundinguniverse.com, 2009)
 
80年后期,EA获得科乐美的观点,夏天街机游戏是非常关注奥运的格式。EA在1990年开始生产墨盒,和世嘉产生的是完全一样的。尽管EA被迫面临法律威胁,他们仍继续生产墨盒 (Businessweek.com, 2010).
 
硬件开发最重要的贡献是EA与技术建立了合资公司,3DO Inc。EA成为3DO最大的原始股东,拥有20%的份额。 3DO 提供的声音素质和图像的质量,不能与视频游戏匹配在电视机上播放。1993年,EA成为第一家卖游戏3DO的格式,视频游戏中成为新趋势(fundinguniverse.com).
 

产品——Product
 

Introducing a new product in to the market involves a lot of market research. A market research provides the organisation with information about the current market trend and its competitors in the global market. Market research will also provide the industry a detailed study of customer needs. During the launch of a particular product, the pricing, place and the promotional elements also plays a vital role. All these above 4p's will form the product life cycle.
 
‘Decision on products also includes brand names, guarantee, packaging and services to be given along with the product' (Jobber, D. 2007:p.19)
 
EA from the beginning was flexible by producing software for all the hardware that was very famous during the early stages of video games. In 1983, EA's first product was shipped and it was a game for Atari 800 game player.They also started to produce games for commodore 64 computers. ‘Skyfox' was the game developed by EA especially for apple II computers and it went to become a massive hit (Fundinguniverse.com, 2009)
 
In the later stage of 80's EA gained idea from konami and produced summer arcade games which was very much focused on Olympic format. EA in 1990's started producing cartridges that were exactly alike the ones produced by sega. Even though EA was forced to face legal threats they continued producing the cartridges (Businessweek.com, 2010).
 
The most significant contribution to the hardware development was EA established a joint-venture with a technology company; 3DO Inc. EA became the largest of the original shareholders of 3DO, which owned 20 percent of the total share. The quality of sound and graphics provided by the 3DO cannot be matched with the video games played on a television set. In 1993 EA became the first company to sell games in the 3DO format, which became the new trend among the video games (fundinguniverse.com).
 
Product Mix Of Ea
 
EA has released a numerous number of products in the field of video games. EA understood the customer needs and created games that also involved human life. EA has categorized its products into 3 segments namely ACTION, ADVENTUROUS, SPORTS. Most of the EA games are released on a yearly basis but since EA holds the official license of various sporting events like FIFA, NBA and NFL it releases various versions of the same game in a given single year (managementfunda.com, 2009).
 
EA games label is a heart of large number of EA studios and that has a huge development team that produces numerous numbers of games every year in the various genres such as action, adventure, role playing, racing etc. EA develops online gaming where people from different parts of the world meet and play (aboutus.ea.com, 2009).
 
EA Play Label is another group that creates games filled with fun and experience that can be played by people of all age group. EA Play label creates games that are based on original IP and licensed IP. The Sims game sold over 100 million units world-wide which was originally launched in the year 2000. The reason for the huge success has been the gameplay features of these games (aboutus.ea.com, 2009).
 
Electronic arts earlier in the year announced officially that it has acquired social gaming company ‘Playfish' for a whooping amount of $400 million. Interestingly ‘Playfish' is very famous among the social networking websites which includes facebook, myspace etc (mashable.com, 2010).
 
The latest development of EA is in mobile phone technology and they have also started to produce java supported games for mobile phones. EA mobile also produces games of different genre to fit different age group of people.
 
Diagram- Ea'S Different Game Genre (Managementfunda.Com, 2009)
 
In the year 2008 EA released around 110 games with new titles and some of them were the extensions of the existing top rated games. EA are producing games at a faster rate and in very efficient way due its extensive restructuring. EA produced 150 games approximately for the year 2009 which is considered to be ever time high in the history. It has also signed a contract with HASBRO for the online development of the Hasbro games like Hasbro family game night and LITTLEST PET SHOP which are very famous among the social networking websites. In 2009 EA also acquired the famous VGH which allowed EA to develop more interactive online games. ‘Dragon Age Of The PC' a new role playing game released in the year 2009 and it proved to be a great hit in the market (portal.euromonitor.com, 2009).
 
In 2003 EA announced officially that it has joined hands with the popular CLUB POGO in producing the online games. Within 2 years time the company's subscription service for the diehard online gamers reached a new height by having its millionth player subscribing for the pogo club. According the ComScore the members of pogo club have prompted the website to become one of the stickiest over the web (news.ea.com, 2005).
 
EA came up with different slogans for its different segments to attract its customers. Initially EA Sports had its slogan as “EA sports if it's in the game, It's in the game” and later it was shortened to become “EA sports-It's in the game” while EA games had a different slogan that of the EA sports it says “EA games- Challenge everything” (en.allexperts.com, 2009).
 
EA's logo though went through several changes along the years. Initially the logo had classic square/ circle/ triangle these design represented the ‘the basic design of graphic design'. Many people were confused and misunderstood the whole concept of the logo. Finally from 1999 a new logo and a common logo was designed which is used by all its 3 segments. The new logo attracted all ages of people and it is this logo that is printed on the top of all the CD/DVD (en.allexperts.com, 2009).
 
Diagram- Official Logo of EA (officialpsds.com, 2008)

 
促销组合——Promotional Mix
 

Brand promotion plays a vital role in accelerating the sales of a particular product. To increase the sales of a particular product attractive price and quality product alone is not enough; the most important factor is to communicate the benefits of the products to the customer. A promotional mix is a combination of different elements like advertising, personal selling, direct marketing, internet promotion, sales promotion and publicity. EA too follows the above said promotional mix elements in various ways. A major part of the EA advertising budget falls under internet promotion.
 
Diagram- The elements of marketing mix (davedolak.com, 2010)
 

广告——Advertising
 

‘Any paid form of non-personal communication of ideas or products in the prime media, i.e. television, the press, outdoor, cinema and radio' (Jobber, D.2007:P.498). In 21st century television and radio proves to be the most powerful medium to convey essential information to masses. Many organisations opt to stake more amount of money in advertising as it forms the most basis of the promotion mix. In 2008 TV giant star sports started a tv show ‘Game' which showcases and provides views, reviews of all gaming products. EA is the co sponsor of this ‘Game' tv show and it proves to be one of the big reasons for EA's reason hits. EA also invests a good amount of money in producing trailers of the upcoming games which are aired at regular intervals at all hotspot areas.
 
EA uses all the latest technology in advertising field in this way all its products are in constant sync with its customers. EA games were also based on the famous movies in the recent years for example game on james bond, harry potter, and the sims are quite noticeable evidence. The character of these Hollywood flicks is used by EA for promoting the games as well. Tiger woods the world number 1 golfer has been appointed as the brand ambassador for EA officially. EA holds the official license for NFL and FIFA. EA brand promotion is also done through the digital advertising boards which are kept as the boundaries in the FIFA football matches.


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