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coursework格式|什么才是好的经理人

时间:2017-04-10 16:59来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
有许多动态的概念和理论考虑的问题;什么是一个好的经理人?古典思想和现代思维都提出了各种方法和管理方式。这个任务的主要目的是评估技能,有助于良好的管理。作者选择了一个简短的介绍文献回顾,描述管理风格的主要概念和支持这些概念的主要理论。选择了下一步的主题是确定了一些基础研究的目标。这些措施包括:
 
There are many dynamic concepts and theories considering the question of; what makes a good manager? Both classical and modern thinking suggests various approaches and management styles. The primary goal of this assignment is to assess skills that contribute to good management. The authors have elected to present a brief introductory literature review describing the key concepts of management style and the major theories supporting these concepts. Having chosen the topic the next step was to set out a number of objectives on which to base the study. These included:
 
To define management
 
To briefly identify the major theories of management
 
To identify key managerial skills and discuss elements of their importance and impact on organisational goals and employee performance
 
Case study: Enron
 
Definition of Management & Management Theory
Management is 'The art of getting things done through people'. (Follett et al., 1973)
 
'Managers give direction, provide leadership & decide how to use resources to accomplish goals'. (Drucker, 1954)
 
'Management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organising, leading and controlling organisational resources'. (Daft and Marcic, 2009)
 
There are many definitions of management. Classical theorists such as Fayol and Taylor believed in applying universal principles to achieve 'one best way' of management. Henri Fayol emphasised 'command and control' and taught the five functions of management as; planning, organising, commanding, co-ordinating and controlling. Taylor in the Principles of Scientific Management (Taylor, 1911) taught that there was 'one best method' of management based on the scientific study of each task. Taylor would not have approved of the focus on the individual, as later developed by Elton Mayo using the Hawthorne experiments which highlighted the importance of social interaction (Mayo, 1949). The work of Mayo was a radical concept in its timeframe. In a review of approaches to management Crainer states that Mayo's studies 'were important because they showed that views of how managers behaved were a vital aspect of motivation and improved performance' (Crainer, 1998). Given Taylor's obsession with control and self-discipline, it is unlikely that he would have understood such a theory. The work of the classical theorists is often criticised for ignoring and being unaware of the complexity of human behaviour and the importance of worker's feelings and the work environment. Despite criticism the 'one best way' theory receives a considerable amount of support. Peter Drucker states that 'Taylor may prove a more useful prophet for our times than we yet recognize... Taylor's greatest impact may still be ahead' (Drucker, 1981). Douglas McGregor's ideas about managerial behaviour had a profound effect on management thinking and practice. His Theory X and Y ideas were informed by motivation theorist Abraham Maslow's suggestion that one factor of worker dissatisfaction was managerial behaviour. The Human Side of Enterprise (McGregor, 1960) introduced humanistic values into management thinking. These values supported efficiency, measurement and control, all elements of traditional scientific management. Theory X suggests that people do not like work and that direct pressure must be exerted to get them to perform. Theory X managers would be autocratic and highly task oriented and show little concern for worker's attitudes. Theory Y assumes that employees are creative and eager to work. Theory Y managers promote job satisfaction and consider worker circumstances. McGregor realises these theories could be unrealistic in practice, but wants managers to put into operation the basic assumption that staff will contribute more to the organisation if they are treated as responsible and valued employees. In Herzberg's Two Factor (motivation/ hygiene) theory it is suggested that management should never deny workers proper treatment. Herzberg's theory has been widely read and fits in well with Maslow and McGregor's emphasis of the value of intrinsic motivators suggesting that it is an important skill for managers to be able to motivate, communicate, give feedback and allow workers greater responsibility in planning and controlling their own work. Peter Drucker suggested that management was not a rank or title, but a responsibility and a practice, and that the skills can be taught and studied. His five basic principles of management are:
 
setting objectives
 
organising
 
motivating and communicating
 
establishing measurements of performance
 
developing people
 
Management theory continues to evolve. More recent theories have included The Systems Approach, The Contingency Approach and Peter Senge's concept of 'The Learning Organisation'. All theories suggest that management need to practice certain skills to be successful. In the next part of the paper we highlight some of these skills.
 
Controlling 控制
Control is an important skill that a good manager should have and should be able to implement in an organisation. It is a very important element of Henri Fayol's five functions of management. Some may view the word controlling as negative and dominant with a certain stigma attached to it. Henry Fayol believed that managers should be able to identify weaknesses and errors by controlling feedback, and conforming activities with plans, policies and instructions. Managers aim to get work done through others. The way they do this, however, has been changing. Organisations, if they become less hierarchical in structure, evolve to more democratic styles of managing people. As organisations and businesses become more technologically advanced, more global and more consumer focused, managers must have high levels of interpersonal and communication skills, emotional intelligence and strong collaborative abilities. They must be able to control the environment they are in charge of. They must be able to work effectively and efficiently with their team of staff to ensure that goals of the organisation are within target.
 
Motivating and Communicating 激励与沟通
The ability to motivate staff is an additional skill which will coincide with good management performance. Peter Drucker claimed that these are one of the five basic principles of management (Drucker, 1954). A good manager should possess excellent motivating skills; they must be able to motivate the staff in a positive manner and be able to delegate the workload fairly and efficiently. Good communication is very important and a vital component of organisational success. A good manager must be able to communicate to all levels of staff. They must be precise as to what they want and how they want staff to do it. A good manager must ensure at all times, the staff can see that they are in control and they know what they are doing. If employees don't see that the manager is confident in the position it could have detrimental results. They also must have a clear set objectives and be be organised. The following case study outlines an example where bad management practices led to the collapse of a successful company.
 
Case Study: Enron 案例研究:安然
Enron made its millions by misleading the world about financial matters, over inflating the value of its stocks and shares, and using very strange accounting practices including the famous 'marking to market' to cover its tracks (Chambers, 2002). With the famous 'pump and dump' scheme, around thirty of Enron's top employees made away with selling over $1 billion of their own artificially inflated stock just before the news of the company's true financial situation became public. The organisation had over eight hundred offshore tax haven subsidiaries, or holding companies, some with outlandish names such as Mr. M. Yass meaning Mr. My Ass and Chewco and Jedi, named after Star Wars characters. These shell companies allowed Enron to keep hundreds of millions of dollars of debt off its books. This also had the effect of inflating the value of the stock, which enriched the largest shareholders. There are a lot more details in relation to the Enron case but if we look at the seriousness of what happened we can see that the managers lost complete control of company and the shareholder objectives. They focused on their own greed and ignored all policies within the organisation. The managers were able to motivate rogue traders into making very bad and unethical business decisions and committing fraud. Communication was carried out informally; verbally as well as through emails and trails of paperwork. Enron's management did not adhere with many of the key managerial skills outlined in this paper. The moral and ethical beliefs of these managers disappeared as the greed took over. The sad case of Enron is that it not only had a negative impact on numbers and money but also on human lives. The individuals involved, mangers, directors and staff who following orders from unethical, greedy people created one of the biggest business scandals in the world to date.


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