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代写coursework:跨国公司与跨国战略

时间:2017-05-16 17:31来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
本文是留学生coursework范文,主要内容是讲述企业为了提高竞争力的水平进入国际市场以及跨国战略的相关内容。
如今,全球竞争环境要求组织不仅要在竞争能力,进入新的市场,实现规模经济,而且有效地管理知识流动的信息化经济。此外,为了提高竞争力,面临的挑战,在追求全球效率,本地响应和在同一时间有效的知识和子公司之间的信息传递。
可以采用不同的策略来获得竞争优势,跨国企业(跨国企业)采用国际策略寻求利用全球创新,但缺乏灵活性和效率,防止它们被局部反应,如通用电气。公司如飞利浦,一个多国内战略包括高的局部反应,但在利用知识转移和所有子公司的能力经历了困难。全球战略的跨国企业跟随从总部的活动高度集中和严格控制的采用,使产品适应当地需求的满足是松下案例。
然而,提高竞争力的水平是不足以克服今天的全球环境所带来的挑战。只专注于家居环境没有一个组织可以建立一个世界级的知识和技能,力争在竞争激烈的市场。因此,跨国企业最近的困境是发展和传播知识,同时促进创新和学习。因此,为了实现这些能力,一些企业正在走向跨国的方法。
 
Nowadays, the global competitive environment requires organizations not only to compete in their ability to enter new markets and achieve economies of scale but also in their ability to effectively administrate knowledge flows in an information-based economy. Additionally, in order to increase competitiveness, challenges are faced in pursuing global efficiency, local responsiveness and at the same time effective knowledge and information transfer between subsidiaries (Hill, 2011).
 
Different strategies can be employed to achieve competitive advantages, Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) adopting international strategies seek to exploit worldwide innovations, but they lack of flexibility and efficiency preventing them from being locally responsive, such as General Electric (Barlett and Beamish, 2011). Firms like Philips, approaching a multi-domestic strategy comprise high local responsiveness but experienced difficulties in exploiting knowledge transfer and competencies of all the subsidiaries (Barlett and Beamish, 2011). Global strategy was adopted by MNEs who followed high centralization and tight control on its activities from Headquarters, which prevented product adaptation to satisfy local needs being the case of Matsushita (Hill, 2011) (Figure 1).
 
Nevertheless, to increasing the level of competitiveness is not sufficient to overcome the challenges arising in today's global environment (Hill, 2011). By focusing only on the home environment no organization can develop a world-class knowledge and expertise to strive in a competitive market (Barlett and Beamish, 2011). Thus, MNEs most recent dilemma is to develop and diffuse knowledge, but at the same time boost innovation and learning (Bartlett and Beamish, 2011). Therefore, to achieve these capabilities some enterprises are moving towards a transnational approach, however, the industry and administrative heritage that characterise each firm frequently prevents the successful implementation of the transnational structure.
 
Transnational model nature 跨国模型类型
Transnational companies are constantly pursuing a balance to centralize key activities that can raise value for the firms´ products and services and which can create competitive advantages; while at the same time decentralize others which need local adaptation or that can be outsourced, which is the global/local dilemma that will not disappear (Caves, 1998). Therefore, the need of coordinating its worldwide value chain and transferring core competencies across subsidiaries requires centralization of some activities, such as Research and Development (R&D), as it is necessary not only to achieve cost reductions but also to protect core competencies and core technologies from competitors (Barlett and Beamish, 2011). On the other hand, local responsiveness is sought by product adaptation, and thus decentralization of other operating activities, like marketing, is essential so that national subsidiaries can still have the flexibility to satisfy local needs.
 
In order to develop an innovation capability that fits a fast-moving environment, there is a need of an organization that is able to sense consumer preferences in one country, link it to the resources developed in another country, to then disseminate it to all the subsidiaries around the organization, namely a transnational organization solution, allowing locally leveraged and globally linked innovation (Barlett and Beamish, 2011). The decision making process must be balanced between global managers and national managers to develop a multidimensional organisation, where the capabilities and influences of national managers are taken into account. Each subsidiary must become responsible for a certain activity, which must share with the rest of the organization so that the whole company benefits from this expertise, therefore communication channels, administrative systems and information flows must be adapted to favour coordination, cooperation among subsidiaries and avoidance of duplication of efforts (Barlett and Beamish, 2011).
 
This organizational structure follows the N-form (network) as opposed to the M-form (multi-divisional) since it focuses on integration, combination, multiplication of resources and capabilities, and managing assets and core competencies as a network of alliances, as opposed to functional or geographical division (Segal-Horn and Faulkner, 1999). The ultimate objective is to have access and make efficient use of all the resources the company has at its disposal globally, including both globalized knowledge and localized tacit knowledge (Barlett and Ghoshal, 1989). By achieving this, a multidimensional and flexible organization will be built, with higher interdependence between subsidiaries that will raise the competitive advantage.
 
According to Barlett and Ghosal (2002) a company should assess the nature and strength of the forces shaping the industry and competitive environment in which it operates. For example: Unilever analyzed the market of the packed goods and managed to build competitive advantage by supplementing the company's well-developed ability to sense and respond to local marker with new strategic capabilities. Therefore, it is not only the environment that should be considered, but also the company's ability to create and most importantly manage such capabilities. Another option to adopt the transnational model is when the industry in which the company operates becomes transnational. Companies should build sensitivity and responsiveness to worldwide markets quickly and control the cost by starting offshore operations. Lastly, before the implementation of the transnational model every aspect should be assessed to facilitate the change in the mindset, creating the "matrix in the minds of managers" (Barlett and Ghosal, 2002).
 
Accomplishing the transnational model is not a simple task, as the structure and organizational strategy is complex and challenging for managers, due to the organizational problems it can create, the enormous control systems that are needed to coordinate all activities and to promote cooperation between subsidiaries to benefit from interdependence and increase performance (Hill, 2011). However, this strategy is still primarily considered an idealistic framework, or idea rather than an organization structure (Segal-Horn and Faulkner, 1999).
 
Challenges 挑战
"In various MNEs three assumptions have blocked the organizational capability necessary for managing such transnational operations. 1) An assumption that the roles of units are uniform and symmetrical allowing them to manage different businesses functions and national operations in the same way. 2) An assumption that headquarter-subsidiary relationships should be based on clear and unambiguous patterns of dependence and interdependence. 3) Management has the responsibility to exercise decision making and control uniformly" (Bartlett and Beamish, 2011 pages).
 
To overcome these setbacks the following is needed: differentiation between subsidiaries (by product, function and geography), building interdependence among company units, i.e. not having a centralized or decentralized resource structure, but a dispersed and specialized one, and finally changing centralized control for coordination and cooperation among units with a shared vision of the organizational objectives.
 
Challenges in Knowledge Transfer 知识转移的挑战
As one of the main competitive advantages of a firm employing a transnational structure is identification and transfer of strategic knowledge, setbacks and obstacles in knowledge transfer can pose great challenges for the company. On the other hand, the complications in knowledge transfer can also benefit the company, as it is unlikely that the external knowledge transfer mechanisms will be more efficient than the internal ones. The increasing number of transnationals' calls for more efficient knowledge transfer arrangements (Bartlett, 1986). Intellectual knowledge generated within the company can be subdivided further into human, structural and relational capital. Knowledge can be idiosyncratic (low value, high uniqueness), ancillary (low value, low uniqueness), core (high value, high uniqueness) and compulsory (high value, low uniqueness). Out of the above it is the core knowledge that is vital to be shared within a transnational company; however, it is also the hardest to transfer, normally due to its tacitness. But even harder to transfer is the collective tacit knowledge (Ordonez de Pablos, 2006), i.e. knowledge that only exists when certain people cooperate, for example a marketing department in a certain subsidiary can possess important knowledge, but each individual will only contribute some part of it. Extensive communication and coordination is required to share this type of knowledge.


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