代写 TAG标签

英国coursework代写-动机理论Motivation theories

时间:2019-03-19 10:33来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:


Motivational theory动机理论
1.0 Introduction引言
Motivation refers to a systemic activity which is through an organization’s design of appropriate rewards and working environment, as well as using a certain code of conduct and punitive measures to stimulate, guide and maintain and restrain members’ behavior to effectively achieve the organization’s goals and its members’ personal goals (Akdol and Arikbog, 2015: 278-282). Since the 1920s and 1930s, many management experts, psychologists and sociologists combined with the practice of modern management theory to put forward a number of motivation theories (Tepret and Tuna, 2015: 673-679), such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs, two-factor theory, Theory X- Theory Y, etc. Nowadays, the United Kingdom contain people from different countries and districts to work in the country, their multicultural backgrounds become an important problem that contemporary corporate managers should take into consideration (Hajdukova, Klementova and Klementova, 2015: 471-476), how to apply motivational theory to manage actual management practices, and ultimately achieve a win-win situation of organizations and individuals is a very valuable research topic with practical significance. This essay first of all reviews relevant motivational theory, then it takes the United Kingdom’s two companies as the objects of a case study, and finally it bring forward recommendations on how modern business managers apply motivation theory to management practice.
2.0 Literature review文献综述
2.1 Maslow's hierarchy of needs马斯洛的需求层次
Maslow's hierarchy of needs was put forward by famous psychologist named Maslow. He is from the perspective of intrinsic theory to suggest that human needs are diverse, according to the order of their occurrence, they can be divided into five levels: physiological needs, security needs, social needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs (Maslow, 1943:96). Only when low-level needs are met, can people pursue needs of high levels (Maslow, 1943:128). According to Maslow's theory, for managers, they need to carefully analyze and grasp the hierarchy of their employees’ needs to find out which they need most, based on the needs to establish appropriate encouraging measures to stimulate staff’s enthusiasm at work (Maslow, 1943:370). 
2.2 Two-factor theory
Herzberg (1959:228) is from the perspective of satisfaction theories to bring forward two-factor theory, it points out that there are two main factors leading to people’s motivation to work: motivate factors and hygienic factors. Hygienic factors refer to the work environment, such as organizational policy, working conditions, relationships, status, security and living conditions (Herzberg, 1959:136). Motivate factors are factors that make employees feel satisfied, they are mostly a work itself, such as achievement, recognition, promotion, growth at work, responsibility, only motivate factors are able to bring a sense of satisfaction, mobilize employees’ work motivation and inspire their work enthusiasm, thereby improving efficiency, and hygienic factors can only eliminate people's discontent and they will not bring satisfaction (Herzberg, 1959:245). Compared Maslow's hierarchy of needs with Herzberg’s two-factor theory, it can be found that the motivate factors that Herzberg actually correspond to the high levels of needs in Maslow's" hierarchy of needs. Therefore, in practice, managers should pay attention to meet employees’ high-level needs and attach importance to motivate factors (Pee and Lee, 2015: 679-690). 
2.3 Theory X- Theory Y
However, it is worth noting that motivation and constraint are two indivisible parts of a motivation system, a motivation system with motivators only is inefficient, so the combination of the two is the problem that a manager should think about. Douglas M• McGregor is based on incentive theories to put forward Theory X- Theory Y, which provides a thought on how to solve this problem. Douglas M• McGregor (1957:13) calls traditional management viewpoint Theory X, on the one hand, it depends on the acquisition and stimulation by money, on the other hand, by tight control, supervision and punishment, it force people to work hard for a organization’s goal. Theory Y tells managers that they should respect and believe subordinates, they should provide work conditions and development opportunities for them; they should find a way to motivate and mobilize their enthusiasm for work, so that people's intelligence can be full played to meet individual needs and goals to complete the organization's objectives simultaneously (McGregor, 1957:108).
2.4 Summary
Based on the above review of motivation theories, the author has realized three points. Firstly, two-factor theory suggests that managers should pay attention to the use of incentives to mobilize the enthusiasm of employees’. Secondly, Maslow hierarchy theory suggests that only after the low-level needs are met, people can pursue a high level of needs, and therefore managers should pay attention to meet the high-level the needs of employees, but that it does not mean that they do not need to meet their low-level needs. Finally, considering from the development trend of modern management, it seems that Theory Y is easier to be accepted by most people, it does not mean that Theory Y is very correct and is applicable to any situation; it does not mean that Theory X is completely wrong and useless. In practical management work, the two should be combined and used flexibly according to different situations.
3.0 Case study
3.1 Unilever
In 2014, LinkedIn was based on a number of statistics to release the "world's most popular employer" list, Unilever remained a top employer of choice in the industry (Unilever, 2014). The secret of the company’s success lies in the company's method of using achievement motivation, which greatly motivates their employees. Unilever is ready to progress in 2020 to reach three ambitious goals: to help the world's population of more than 1 billion to improve the health and level of happiness; to halve the negative impact of the company's products on the environment; agricultural raw materials should have 100% of sustainability, while improving the living standards of workers in the supply chain. To make the first line workers understand the company's vision and recognize their value in order to better motivate staff, at the end of 2013, Unilever built an online "social impact centre" for 174,000 employees to allow them to understand what measures the company takes to achieve the goals (Unilever, 2014). Unilever also increases training programs to improve the professional level of employees, and helps employees to know how to promote their own work to achieve business goals. While salaries of employees are linked with the effect of the company’s implementation of its long-term sustained plans.  
TESCO was founded in 1919. It is one of the UK's leading retailers and it has more than 300,000 employees with different cultural backgrounds. In 2008, TESCO topped "Britain's most admired companies" (in the food and drug stores) published by "Fortune" magazine (Fortune, 2008). The magazine believes that in management work, TESCO highlights a humanized characteristic, it pays attention to human resources development and attaches more importance to the training of quality of staff, as well as staff rights protection. For example, in terms of employee communication and employee relation management, TESCO stresses that through a standard and institutional management system, it establishes a business system which allows management to be willing to listen to ideas of employees; considering salaries and benefits, TESCO refines incentives for different positions, pays attention to the strategy of combining material and spiritual rewards together, and it establishes a clear, strict, scientific system of rewards and penalties, as well as performance appraisal system; about training and development, TESCO makes its employee training and development system standardized, systematic, so that employees are clear about the competency requirements of each job and stage; judging from the cultural and atmosphere of the organization, TESCO (2015) insists “We know that looking after our colleagues in a culture of trust and respect is essential to the success of TESCO”, it emphasizes respect for individuals as well as the fairness of the system.

  • 英国作业
  • 美国作业
  • 加拿大作业
  • 英国essay
  • 澳洲essay
  • 美国essay
  • 加拿大essay
  • MBA Essay
  • Essay格式范文
  • 澳洲代写assignment
  • 代写英国assignment
  • Assignment格式
  • 如何写assignment
  • case study
  • literature review
  • Research Proposal
  • Summary范文
  • Reference格式
  • presentation
  • report格式
  • PEST分析法
  • Admission Essay
  • Personal Statement
  • Motivation Letter
  • Application Letter
  • recommendation letter