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英国coursework指导-动机理论Motivation theories

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-03-19 10:33:18 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

导读:英国留学coursework范文推荐-全文讲述的是在多元文化背景下,由于竞争需求和员工特点的变化,管理者需要采用更人性化的激励方法和制度。首先,作为企业管理者,要注意满足员工的高层次需求和员工对激励因素的需求,如:尊重员工的个人宗教信仰、民族风俗习惯、重视员工的价值观、积极与员工沟通、帮助员工成长等。第二,管理者不应忽视满足员工的低层次需求,他们应该明白,只有满足员工的低层次需求,他们才会追求高层次的需求。

Motivational theory动机理论
1.0 Introduction引言
激励是指通过组织设计适当的奖励和工作环境,并运用一定的行为准则和惩罚性措施来激励、引导和维护和约束成员的行为,从而有效地实现组织的目标和成员的个人目标的系统性活动。(Akdol和Arikbog,2015年:278-282)。20世纪20年代至30年代以来,许多管理专家、心理学家和社会学家结合现代管理理论的实践,提出了一系列激励理论(Tepret和Tuna,2015:673-679),如马斯洛的需要层次论、双因素理论、理论X-理论Y等。如今,英国有来自不同的国家和地区要在国内工作,他们的多元文化背景成为当代企业管理者应该考虑的一个重要问题(Hajdukova、Klementova和Klementova,2015:471-476),如何运用激励理论来管理实际的管理实践,最终实现双赢。组织和个人评价是一个非常有价值的研究课题,具有现实意义。本文首先回顾了相关的激励理论,然后以英国两家公司为研究对象,对现代企业管理者如何将激励理论应用于管理实践提出了建议。
Motivation refers to a systemic activity which is through an organization’s design of appropriate rewards and working environment, as well as using a certain code of conduct and punitive measures to stimulate, guide and maintain and restrain members’ behavior to effectively achieve the organization’s goals and its members’ personal goals (Akdol and Arikbog, 2015: 278-282). Since the 1920s and 1930s, many management experts, psychologists and sociologists combined with the practice of modern management theory to put forward a number of motivation theories (Tepret and Tuna, 2015: 673-679), such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs, two-factor theory, Theory X- Theory Y, etc. Nowadays, the United Kingdom contain people from different countries and districts to work in the country, their multicultural backgrounds become an important problem that contemporary corporate managers should take into consideration (Hajdukova, Klementova and Klementova, 2015: 471-476), how to apply motivational theory to manage actual management practices, and ultimately achieve a win-win situation of organizations and individuals is a very valuable research topic with practical significance. This essay first of all reviews relevant motivational theory, then it takes the United Kingdom’s two companies as the objects of a case study, and finally it bring forward recommendations on how modern business managers apply motivation theory to management practice.
2.0 Literature review文献综述
2.1 Maslow's hierarchy of needs马斯洛的需求层次
马斯洛的需要层次是由著名心理学家马斯洛提出的。他从内在理论的角度提出,人的需要是多样的,根据其发生的先后顺序,可以分为五个层次:生理需要、安全需要、社会需要、自尊需要、自我实现需要(马斯洛,1943:96)。只有满足低级需求,人们才能追求高级需求(马斯洛,1943:128)。根据马斯洛的理论,对于管理者来说,他们需要仔细分析和掌握员工需求的层次结构,根据需要找出他们最需要的,建立适当的激励措施来激发员工的工作热情(马斯洛,1943:370)。
Maslow's hierarchy of needs was put forward by famous psychologist named Maslow. He is from the perspective of intrinsic theory to suggest that human needs are diverse, according to the order of their occurrence, they can be divided into five levels: physiological needs, security needs, social needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs (Maslow, 1943:96). Only when low-level needs are met, can people pursue needs of high levels (Maslow, 1943:128). According to Maslow's theory, for managers, they need to carefully analyze and grasp the hierarchy of their employees’ needs to find out which they need most, based on the needs to establish appropriate encouraging measures to stimulate staff’s enthusiasm at work (Maslow, 1943:370). 
2.2 Two-factor theory
Herzberg (1959:228) is from the perspective of satisfaction theories to bring forward two-factor theory, it points out that there are two main factors leading to people’s motivation to work: motivate factors and hygienic factors. Hygienic factors refer to the work environment, such as organizational policy, working conditions, relationships, status, security and living conditions (Herzberg, 1959:136). Motivate factors are factors that make employees feel satisfied, they are mostly a work itself, such as achievement, recognition, promotion, growth at work, responsibility, only motivate factors are able to bring a sense of satisfaction, mobilize employees’ work motivation and inspire their work enthusiasm, thereby improving efficiency, and hygienic factors can only eliminate people's discontent and they will not bring satisfaction (Herzberg, 1959:245). Compared Maslow's hierarchy of needs with Herzberg’s two-factor theory, it can be found that the motivate factors that Herzberg actually correspond to the high levels of needs in Maslow's" hierarchy of needs. Therefore, in practice, managers should pay attention to meet employees’ high-level needs and attach importance to motivate factors (Pee and Lee, 2015: 679-690). 
2.3 Theory X- Theory Y
However, it is worth noting that motivation and constraint are two indivisible parts of a motivation system, a motivation system with motivators only is inefficient, so the combination of the two is the problem that a manager should think about. Douglas M• McGregor is based on incentive theories to put forward Theory X- Theory Y, which provides a thought on how to solve this problem. Douglas M• McGregor (1957:13) calls traditional management viewpoint Theory X, on the one hand, it depends on the acquisition and stimulation by money, on the other hand, by tight control, supervision and punishment, it force people to work hard for a organization’s goal. Theory Y tells managers that they should respect and believe subordinates, they should provide work conditions and development opportunities for them; they should find a way to motivate and mobilize their enthusiasm for work, so that people's intelligence can be full played to meet individual needs and goals to complete the organization's objectives simultaneously (McGregor, 1957:108).
2.4 Summary
Based on the above review of motivation theories, the author has realized three points. Firstly, two-factor theory suggests that managers should pay attention to the use of incentives to mobilize the enthusiasm of employees’. Secondly, Maslow hierarchy theory suggests that only after the low-level needs are met, people can pursue a high level of needs, and therefore managers should pay attention to meet the high-level the needs of employees, but that it does not mean that they do not need to meet their low-level needs. Finally, considering from the development trend of modern management, it seems that Theory Y is easier to be accepted by most people, it does not mean that Theory Y is very correct and is applicable to any situation; it does not mean that Theory X is completely wrong and useless. In practical management work, the two should be combined and used flexibly according to different situations.
3.0 Case study
3.1 Unilever
In 2014, LinkedIn was based on a number of statistics to release the "world's most popular employer" list, Unilever remained a top employer of choice in the industry (Unilever, 2014). The secret of the company’s success lies in the company's method of using achievement motivation, which greatly motivates their employees. Unilever is ready to progress in 2020 to reach three ambitious goals: to help the world's population of more than 1 billion to improve the health and level of happiness; to halve the negative impact of the company's products on the environment; agricultural raw materials should have 100% of sustainability, while improving the living standards of workers in the supply chain. To make the first line workers understand the company's vision and recognize their value in order to better motivate staff, at the end of 2013, Unilever built an online "social impact centre" for 174,000 employees to allow them to understand what measures the company takes to achieve the goals (Unilever, 2014). Unilever also increases training programs to improve the professional level of employees, and helps employees to know how to promote their own work to achieve business goals. While salaries of employees are linked with the effect of the company’s implementation of its long-term sustained plans.  
3.2 TESCO
TESCO was founded in 1919. It is one of the UK's leading retailers and it has more than 300,000 employees with different cultural backgrounds. In 2008, TESCO topped "Britain's most admired companies" (in the food and drug stores) published by "Fortune" magazine (Fortune, 2008). The magazine believes that in management work, TESCO highlights a humanized characteristic, it pays attention to human resources development and attaches more importance to the training of quality of staff, as well as staff rights protection. For example, in terms of employee communication and employee relation management, TESCO stresses that through a standard and institutional management system, it establishes a business system which allows management to be willing to listen to ideas of employees; considering salaries and benefits, TESCO refines incentives for different positions, pays attention to the strategy of combining material and spiritual rewards together, and it establishes a clear, strict, scientific system of rewards and penalties, as well as performance appraisal system; about training and development, TESCO makes its employee training and development system standardized, systematic, so that employees are clear about the competency requirements of each job and stage; judging from the cultural and atmosphere of the organization, TESCO (2015) insists “We know that looking after our colleagues in a culture of trust and respect is essential to the success of TESCO”, it emphasizes respect for individuals as well as the fairness of the system.#p#分页标题#e#
4.0 Discussion
4.1 Importance of humanized management 
In the contemporary multicultural background, abandoning traditional management and motivation mode to adopt a more humane management to motivate employees has become the consensus of enterprise managers, humane management is so important because the main wealth of knowledge economy era is from knowledge (Cucu-Ciuhan and Guită-Alexandru 2014: 448-453). To allow employees to consciously and voluntarily give their knowledge, ideas to an enterprise to achieve knowledge sharing, it is only by humanized management (Lambert et al., 2015:105-120). With economic progress and social development, compared with the past, employee characteristics have undergone major changes, they are more personalized, they more hope that their personal values can be paid enough attention, their personal dignity, religious beliefs, habits and customs are respected (Hitka and Balážová, 2015: 348-335), so in the rigid management in the past can easily lead to resentment of contemporary staff’s.
4.2 Satisfaction of high-level needs
From the perspective of Maslow's hierarchy needs and two-factor theory, Unilever is through achievement motivation to meet employees’ needs of self-realization, Unilever’s staff training system allows employees to understand the company's vision and recognize their own value, so as to help employees understand how their own work promote the realization of business goals, which meets the needs of employees’ for sense of belonging, needs for being respected. These humanized management measures taken by Unilever meet the requirements of motivate factors, it effectively mobilizes the enthusiasm of staff’s and improves employee satisfaction, making Unilever the first company in the industry which satisfies their staff most. TESCO establishes a system to listen to employees’ ideas and through training system, it make each employee clear about requirements of every post and stage for their ability. TESCO’s corporate culture emphasizes respect for individuals and the fairness of its system, it respects individual employees’ religion, ethnic customs, pays attention to the value of employees, these measures also reflect that it pays attention to meeting high-level needs of employees and the characteristics of its motivation system in motivating employee.
4.3 Non-neglect of Low-level needs
Maslow noted that only after the low-level needs are met, people will pursue high levels of needs. This shows that neglecting meeting the low-level needs of employees’ will clearly lead to bad motivation results. As far as Unilever is concerned, the achievement motivation is the most important method for it in mobilizing staff enthusiasm, but its emphasis on the use of compensation means to motivate employees and meet employees' needs in physiology and security, which is also an important reason for their success in motivating staff. In terms of TESCO, its refinement of motivation policies for different positions, focusing on the strategy of combining material and spiritual rewards also reflect the characteristic of its employee motivation in emphasizing meeting low level needs of employees’.
4.4 Maintaining a balance between motivation and restriction
In management practice, manager should know how to use motivation and constraint means to find a balance between Theory X and Theory Y. They should not only effectively motivate employees, but also ensure that enterprises’ motivation systems can really bring benefits for the enterprises. Considering Unilever, the company implements a performance appraisal system and salary management system combined with the effects of its sustainable long-term plans, on the one hand, it rewards good employees, on the other hand, it supervises employees whose performance is not ideal, providing necessary training to help them to improve themselves, which contributes to better motivation of the employees to make progress together with the enterprise. Judging from TESCO’s employee motivation measures, it very stresses system construction, it establishes a clear, strict, scientific motivation system to ensure that the motivation process should be legal, showing that it attaches importance to maintain a balance between motivation and restraining.
5.0 Conclusion
In a multicultural context, due to changes in the competitive needs and characteristics of employees, managers need to adopt a more humane motivation method and system. First, as business managers, they should pay attention to meet high-level needs of staff’s and staff’s need for motivate factors, such as: respect for employee's personal religious beliefs, ethnic customs, paying attention to the value of employees, and actively communicating with employees, helping with employees’ growing up, and so on. Second, managers should not ignore meeting the low-level needs of employees, they should understand that only when employees’ low-level needs are met, they will pursue high levels of needs. Finally, in order to achieve win-win situation, managers should try to find a balance between motivation and restriction.
 
References
Akdol, B. and Arikbog, F. S. (2015) ‘The effects of leader behavior on job satisfaction: a research on technology fast 50 turkey companies.’ Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195(3), pp. 278-282.
Cucu-Ciuhan, G. and Guită-Alexandru, I. (2014) ‘Organizational culture versus work motivation for the academic staff in a public university.’ Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 127(22), pp. 448-453.
Fortune. (2008) World’s most admired companies. [Online] [Accessed on 4th December 2015] http://archive.fortune.com/magazines/fortune/globalmostadmired/2008/snapshots/7930.html
Hajdukova, A., Klementova, J. and Klementova, J. (2015) ‘The job satisfaction as a regulator of the working behaviour.’ Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 190(21), pp. 471-476.
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., and Snyderman, B.B. (1959) The motivation to work. New York: Wiley.
Hitka, M. and Balážová, Z. (2015) ‘Comparison of motivation level of service sector employees in the regions of Slovakia and Austria.’ Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, pp. 348-355.
Lambert, E. G., Minor, K. I., Wells, J. B. and Hogan, N. L. (2015) ‘Social support's relationship to correctional staff job stress, job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.’ The Social Science Journal, 10(2), pp. 105-120.
Maslow, A. H. (1943) ‘A theory of human motivation.’ Psychological Review, 50, pp.370-96.
McGregor, D.M. (1957) ‘Proceedings of the fifth anniversary convocation of the school of industrial management, the human side of enterprise.’ Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pp. 13-108.
Pee, L.G. and Lee, J. (2015) ‘Intrinsically motivating employees’ online knowledge sharing: Understanding the effects of job design.’ International Journal of Information Management, 35(6), pp. 679-690.
Tepret, N. Y. and Tuna, K. (2015) ‘Effect of management factor on employee job satisfaction: an application in telecommunication sector.’ Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195(3), pp. 673-679.
TESCO. (2015) Our core purpose: serving Britain's shoppers a little better, every day. [Online] [Accessed on 4th December 2015] http://www.tescoplc.com/index.asp?pageid=10
Unilever. (2014) Unilever remains a top employer of choice. [Online] [Accessed on 4th December 2015]https://www.unilever.com/news/news-and-features/2014/14-10-23-Unilever-remains-a-top-employer-of-choice.html?criteria=criteria%3dpage%253d2%2526topics%253d408268
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