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留学生作业:企业定位策略研究

时间:2020-08-31 15:31来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:Hpan317 点击:
定位策略对于企业来说至关重要。随着人们需求的差异化不断增大,一个企业不可能同时完美的满足不同消费者的需求。即使可以花费所有资源去满足消费者,但这也不是企业追求的有效的经济
Positioning strategies are critical to the business (Diana 2018). As the difference in people's needs grows, it is impossible for a company to perfectly meet the needs of different consumers at the same time. Even if all the resources can be spent to satisfy consumers, this is not an effective economic benefit pursued by the company. This paper first describes the concept of positioning strategy and the issues to be considered when positioning. The article also describes the relationship between customer analysis, market analysis, internal analysis, competitive analysis and positioning strategy.
定位策略对于企业来说至关重要。随着人们需求的差异化不断增大,一个企业不可能同时完美的满足不同消费者的需求。即使可以花费所有资源去满足消费者,但这也不是企业追求的有效的经济效益。这篇论文首先讲述了定位策略的概念以及定位时要考虑的问题。文章同时还讲述了顾客分析,市场分析,内部分析以及竞争分析与定位策略的联系。
 

 
The positioning strategy is defined by the company's use of advertising to create a distinctive feature that distinguishes the company's products or services from other competing products, so that products and services can establish their unique attributes and values ​​in the minds of consumers (Diana 2018). The purpose of the positioning strategy is to enable the company to occupy a unique position in the minds of consumers and to create a sustainable trend in the minds of consumers, so that the company can obtain a favorable market competitive position. Since the company cannot meet the differentiated needs of all consumers, the positioning strategy should be single, that is, only serve one or several types of users (Lovelock & Wirtz 2011). At the same time, this positioning must be able to distinguish the company from other competitors. In fact, the concept of positioning is not limited to the company's services or products. Lovelock & Wirtz (2011) said that the positioning strategy also includes the company's analysis of current services, such as what the current company's products represent in the minds of consumers and potential consumers, who is the current and future users of the company, what is the target market for the current service, and the difference between the company's products and competitors, and also the changes that companies need to make in order to remain competitive. In general, positioning is divided into three types: function, symbol and experience position (Venter, Wright & Dibb 2015). For example, Tesla's positioning is a high-end luxury sports car, this positioning meets the needs of consumers to use the car to display their status. This positioning differentiates Tesla from other new energy vehicle competitors and accounts for a large share of the high-end automotive market (Alghalith 2018). A study of 101 companies in the United States found that companies that use competitive positioning strategies have higher profitability than those that are not clearly positioned (Diana 2018). This fully illustrates the importance of positioning.

定位策略的定义是公司利用广告宣传,为公司的产品或服务创造一种能区别于其他竞争产品的特色,从而使产品和服务在消费者心中树立其独特的属性和价值观。定位策略的目的在于公司让其产品占据消费者心目中独特的地位以及在消费者心中创造可持续发展的趋势,从而使公司获得有利的市场竞争地位。由于公司无法满足所有消费者的差异化需求,所以定位策略应该是单一的,也就是仅仅为一类或几类用户提供服务。同时,这个定位必须是能够让公司明显区别于其它竞争对手。实际上,定位的概念不仅仅局限于公司的服务或产品。它还包括了公司对当前服务的分析,如当前公司产品在消费者和潜在消费者心中代表什么,公司目前和未来的用户是谁,当前服务的目标市场是什么,公司产品与竞争者有何不同,以及为了保持竞争地位公司需要做出的改变。一般来说,定位分为功能,象征和经验位置这三种类型。比如说,特斯拉的定位是高端豪华跑车,这种定位满足了消费者利用汽车来显示自己身份地位的需求。这种定位让特斯拉区别于其他新能源汽车竞争者,占据了很大一部分高端汽车市场的份额。美国对101家企业进行研究发现,采用竞争定位策略的企业比没有明确定位的企业的盈利能力更高。这充分说明了定位的重要性。
 


In marketing theory, the three core elements of positioning strategy are market segmentation, target market and market positioning (Lovelock & Wirtz 2011). They are called STP and are the cornerstone of their positioning strategy. They are directly linked to STP through customer analysis, market analysis, internal analysis and competitive analysis, and thus indirectly associated with positioning strategies. Market segmentation refers to the division of consumers into different market segments by relying on differences in consumer demand (Krause & Battenfeld 2019). Market segmentation includes market analysis and customer analysis, while market analysis includes analysis of customers. The basic forms of market segments are geographic segmentation, demographic segmentation, psychological segmentation, and behavioral segmentation (McDonald 2013). Geographic segmentation is to segment the market according to the geographic location and natural environment of the consumer. For example, the overall market is divided into different market segments according to differences in country, region, city size, climate and population density (Asiedu 2019). For example, Haier mainly sells refrigerators in the US market according to the lifestyle habits Americans prefer to buy a lot of food at one time (Venter, Wright & Dibb 2015). Population segmentation is based on demographic variables such as age, gender, income, occupation, education, religion, and nationality (Asiedu 2019). For example, the bubble gum market in Japan is monopolized by Lauter, but Jiangsaki Sugar Company has divided the bubble market according to age, thus making the adult bubble market as its target market and occupying a large market share (Venter, Wright & Dibb 2015). Krause & Battenfeld (2019) said that social banking customers differ from traditional bank customers in terms of sociodemographic statistics. Compared with traditional bank customers, social banking customers tend to be younger and more educated. Becoming a social banking customer is more about education than income (Krause & Battenfeld 2019). Psychological variables are market segments based on psychological factors such as the social class and lifestyle of the buyer (Asiedu 2019). For example, Tesla is subdividing its customers with consumer variables. Through its high-end positioning of its brand, Tesla uses its consumer demand for brand and display identity to target high-end customers (Alghalith 2018). According to the buyer's behavioral variables such as the pursuit of interests, attitudes and usage rate, the consumers are divided into different groups, called behavior subdivision (Asiedu 2019). For example, Procter & Gamble launches different types of shampoos based on the interests of consumers (McDonald 2013). Market analysis analyzes and categorizes the different needs of customers, which helps companies select their target customers and position their services.

在营销理论中,定位策略的三个核心要素是市场细分,目标市场和市场定位。他们被称为STP营销,是定位策略的基石。它们通过顾客分析,市场分析,内部分析和竞争分析与STP直接联系起来,从而间接与定位策略相关联。市场细分是指依靠消费者的需求差异,将消费者划分到不同的细分市场。市场细分中包含了市场分析和顾客分析,而市场分析则包含了对顾客的分析。细分市场的基本形式是地理细分、人口细分、心理细分和行为细分。地理细分是按照消费者所处的地理位置和自然环境来细分市场,比如,根据国家、地区、城市规模、气候和人口密度等方面的差异将整体市场分为不同的细分市场。例如,海尔根据美国人喜欢一次性购入很多食品的生活习惯,在美国市场主要销售冰箱。人口细分是根据人口变量,如年龄、性别、收入、职业、教育程度、宗教和国籍等为基础进行市场细分。如日本泡泡糖市场被劳特公司垄断,但江崎糖业公司将泡泡堂市场根据年龄进行细分,从而将成人泡泡堂市场作为它的目标市场并占据了很大的市场份额。研究显示,社会银行客户在社会人口统计方面与传统银行客户存在差异。与传统的银行客户相比,社会银行客户往往更年轻、受教育程度更高。成为社会银行客户更多的与教育有关,而不是收入。心理变量是根据购买者所处的社会阶层和生活方式等心理因素进行市场细分。比如,特斯拉就是以消费者心里变量对其客户进行细分。特斯通过其品牌的高端定位,利用消费者对品牌和显示身份的需求,从而将高端客户作为它的目标客户。根据购买者对产品的利益追求、态度及使用率等行为变量,将消费者划分成不同的群体,叫行为细分。比如,保洁根据消费者差异化的利益追求,推出不同类型的洗发水。市场分析将顾客的不同需求进行了分析以及分类,这有助于企业选择目标客户并定位其服务。
 
Choosing the target market is an assessment of the attractiveness of each market segment, combined with the company's existing and potential resources to select the best target market (Dibb & Simkin 2009). In other words, consider whether the company currently has sufficient resources and sufficient capacity to participate in market segmentation competition (Ciobota & Velea 2015) . Therefore, the company must analyze its own resources through internal analysis. The company's internal analysis is to select the target market to serve through the analysis of resources, reputation, limitations and value, and at the same time obtain the advantages that can be emphasized to customers, that is, the core competitiveness of the company (Lovelock & Wirtz 2011). Analysis of corporate resources includes analysis of financial, human, technical, and physical assets (Ciobota & Velea 2015). By analyzing this, companies can refine their unique resources and capabilities, and the advantages that other organizations can't imitate become the core competitiveness of the company. For example, Tesla's current financial situation is in the stage of continuous income increase, and the geographical advantage of its company in Silicon Valley makes Tesla obtain excellent technical personnel, which makes it occupy the high-tech status of the new energy automobile industry (Alghalith 2018). For Qualcomm to monopolize the chip, its reputation is not very good. However, because Qualcomm's innovative ability is very strong and technology is difficult to be replicated, its customer base must rely on Qualcomm in order to survive in the industry (Diana & Tanja 2010). The company can only clarify the market positioning if it understands the competitive advantage in internal analysis.


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