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Essay的写作手法技艺集结(海外留学英文版)-留学生essay创作福利

时间:2016-10-05 11:47来源:未知 作者:anter_ran 点击:
Essay的写作手法技艺集结(海外留学英文版)
 
Essay的写法(对于去国外留学的朋友很重要的)
1.) Critical Essay    2.) Literature Essay   3.) Descriptive Essay
Literature Essay
1.)    Introduction
a.       Introduction to the topic
b.      Thesis Statement
c.       Essay Outline
2.)    Body Paragraph 1
a.       Transition Sentence
b.      Essay point number 1
c.       Explanation + Facts
3.)    Body Paragraph 2
a.       Transition Sentence
b.      Essay point number 1
c.       Explanation + Facts
4.)    Conclusion
a.       Transition Sentence
b.      Restate important points and why they support your thesis
 
 文学散文中常用术语:
 
所有的小说都是基于冲突,这种冲突是在一个结构化的格式,称为阴谋。
博览会
介绍材料,给出了设置,创建的基调,介绍了人物,并提出了其他必要的事实来理解的故事。
伏笔
使用提示或线索暗示以后会发生什么事。
煽动力
触发冲突的事件或字符。
冲突
小说的本质。它创造了阴谋。我们遇到的冲突通常可以被确定为四种之一。(人与……人,自然,社会,或自我)
上升动作
从冲突中建立的一系列事件。它开始与煽动力和结尾的高潮。
危机
冲突达到一个转折点。在这一点上,在故事中的对立力量,冲突变得最激烈。危机发生之前或在同一时间的高潮。
高潮
高潮是危机的结果。这是读者的故事的高点。通常,它是最感兴趣和最伟大的情感的时刻。冲突的结果可以预测的点。
下降的动作
事件结束后的高潮,结束了故事。
分辨率(结局)
轮出来并结束行动。
Terms commonly use in literature essays:
 
All fiction is based on conflict and this conflict is presented in a structured format called PLOT.
Exposition 
The introductory material which gives the setting, creates the tone, presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to understanding the story.
Foreshadowing 
The use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in the story.
Inciting Force 
The event or character that triggers the conflict.
Conflict 
The essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts we encounter can usually be identified as one of four kinds. (Man versus…Man, Nature, Society, or Self)
Rising Action 
A series of events that builds from the conflict. It begins with the inciting force and ends with the climax.
Crisis 
The conflict reaches a turning point. At this point the opposing forces in the story meet and the conflict becomes most intense. The crisis occurs before or at the same time as the climax.
Climax 
The climax is the result of the crisis. It is the high point of the story for the reader. Frequently, it is the moment of the highest interest and greatest emotion. The point at which the outcome of the conflict can be predicted.
Falling Action 
The events after the climax which close the story.
Resolution (Denouement) 
Rounds out and concludes the action.
CHARACTERIZATION
MAJOR CHARACTERS 
Almost always round or three-dimensional characters. They have good and bad qualities. Their goals, ambitions and values change. A round character changes as a result of what happens to him or her. A character who changes inside as a result of what happens to him is referred to in literature as a DYNAMIC character. A dynamic character grows or progresses to a higher level of understanding in the course of the story.
  
Protagonist 
The main character in the story
 Antagonist 
The character or force that opposes the protagonist. 
Foil
A character who provides a contrast to the protagonist.
MINOR CHARACTERS 
Almost always flat or two-dimensional characters. They have only one or two striking qualities. Their predominant quality is not balanced by an opposite quality. They are usually all good or all bad. Such characters can be interesting or amusing in their own right, but they lack depth. Flat characters are sometimes referred to as STATIC characters because they do not change in the course of the story.
POINT OF VIEW
First Person 
The narrator is a character in the story who can reveal only personal thoughts and feelings and what he or she sees and is told by other characters. He can’t tell us thoughts of other characters.
Third-Person Objective 
The narrator is an outsider who can report only what he or she sees and hears. This narrator can tell us what is happening, but he can’t tell us the thoughts of the characters.
Third-Person Limited 
The narrator is an outsider who sees into the mind of one of the characters.
Omniscient  
The narrator is an all-knowing outsider who can enter the minds of more than one of the characters.
 CONFLICT
Conflict is the essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts we encounter can usually be identified as one of four kinds.
Man versus Man 
Conflict that pits one person against another.
Man versus Nature 
A run-in with the forces of nature. On the one hand, it expresses the insignificance of a single human life in the cosmic scheme of things. On the other hand, it tests the limits of a person’s strength and will to live.
Man versus Society 
The values and customs by which everyone else lives are being challenged. The character may come to an untimely end as a result of his or her own convictions. The character may, on the other hand, bring others around to a sympathetic point of view, or it may be decided that society was right after all.
Man versus Self 
Internal conflict. Not all conflict involves other people. Sometimes people are their own worst enemies. An internal conflict is a good test of a character’s values. Does he give in to temptation or rise above it? Does he demand the most from himself or settle for something less? Does he even bother to struggle? The internal conflicts of a character and how they are resolved are good clues to the character’s inner strength.
Often, more than one kind of conflict is taking place at the same time. In every case, however, the existence of conflict enhances the reader’s understanding of a character and creates the suspense and interest that make you want to continue reading.
伏笔
 
作者使用提示或线索来建议在故事中发生的事件。不是所有的伏笔是显而易见的。通常,未来的事件仅仅是通过对话、描述或人物的态度和反应来暗示的。
经常用的伏笔。它建立的悬疑问题,鼓励读者去找出更多有关事件正在埋下伏笔。伏笔也使叙事部分准备活动所遵循的读者更可信的手段。
FORESHADOWING
An author’s use of hints or clues to suggest events that will occur later in the story. Not all foreshadowing is obvious. Frequently, future events are merely hinted at through dialogue, description, or the attitudes and reactions of the characters.
Foreshadowing frequently serves two purposes. It builds suspense by raising questions that encourage the reader to go on and find out more about the event that is being foreshadowed. Foreshadowing is also a means of making a narrative more believable by partially preparing the reader for events which are to follow.
IRONY 
 
Irony is the contrast between what is expected or what appears to be and what actually is.
Verbal Irony 
The contrast between what is said and what is actually meant.
Irony of Situation 
This refers to a happening that is the opposite of what is expected or intended.
Dramatic Irony 
This occurs when the audience or reader knows more than the characters know.
TONE/MOOD
Tone 
The author’s attitude, stated or implied, toward a subject. Some possible attitudes are pessimism, optimism, earnestness, seriousness, bitterness, humorous, and joyful. An author’s tone can be revealed through choice of words and details.
Mood  
The climate of  feeling in a literary work. The choice of setting, objects, details, images, and words all contribute towards creating a specific mood. For example, an author may create a mood of mystery around a character or setting but may treat that character or setting in an ironic, serious, or humorous tone


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