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英国单亲家庭的影响Termpaper范文

时间:2015-09-09 09:57来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:pesixxj 点击:
婚姻和离婚是非常复杂的,但比婚姻和离婚更重要的是它们对青少年的所带来影响,以及他们所来自的家庭。“在美国,50%的婚姻结都在许多不同的方式上影响了家庭和儿童”(Zinsmeister, 1997)。孩子们最大的兴趣不是经常被认为给予的不够,也不是离婚会怎样影响孩子们以后的生活。如果青少年选择在以后的生活中卷入犯罪活动,那么他们的生活中的各个方面都应该被考虑,而不仅仅考虑离婚所带来的影响。

研究表明,每个家庭都有自己的经营方式,但当家庭的经营方式无效时,它所带来的影响远远超过人们所认知的。“社会科学研究已经考察了各种特色的家庭生活,探索了可能与未来的犯罪活动和犯罪行为有关因素。这些因素包括离婚、单亲家庭、父母对孩子的态度、家庭凝聚力、父母的戒律、家庭规模和适当的监督”(Pope, 1988)。然而,“研究并没有发现家庭破裂和严重冒犯之间的关系证据”(rebellon,2002)。

Marriage and divorce are very complex subjects but more important than marriage and divorce are the effects they have on the adolescents and the homes they come from. "In the United States 50 percent of all marriages end in divorce which affects the family and children in many different ways" (Zinsmeister, 1997). What is in the best interest of the children is something that is not often considered enough and neither is how a divorce will affect the children later on in life. If adolescents choose to become involved in criminal activity later in life all aspects of their lives should be considered, not just if they were affected by divorce.

Research shows that each family has its own ways of operating but when families are not operating effectively it has a much larger effect than what people realize. "Social science research has examined various characteristics of family life that may be associated with future delinquent activity and adult criminal behavior. These have included such factors as divorce, single-parent homes, and parental attitudes toward children, family cohesiveness, parental discipline, family size, and degree of supervision" (Pope, 1988). However, "research does not find consistent evidence of a relationship between broken homes and severe forms of offending" (Rebellon, 2002).

This paper will explain that despite how hard it may be growing up in a single parent home people can overcome the stereotypical titles that are given to those children. "Such titles are those of trouble makers, not as smart as the other kids, slower to learn things" (Felson, 2006). There will be two sides of the issue discussed and the researcher will provide studies that argue two different outcomes. Poverty often plays a role in single parent styles of living but that does not mean that stealing and breaking the law is the first resort. Peer groups, school, and relationships with others all play roles in an adolescent's life in one way or another.

Research has shown that raising children is a full time job and is much easier when there are two functioning adults to participate. "Often the one parent that is raising the children works both jobs and tries to be there so that the family unit can remain as one and not be torn apart" (Rebellon, 2002). Communication is something that helps families overcome hard times. Divorce can be very traumatizing to children and also have a role on why adolescents act or do not act in a certain way.

There are three perspectives that help break down and explain broken homes and delinquency. "The mechanism linking broken homes to delinquency remains theoretically vague and empirically unknown. Nonetheless, three leading theoretical perspectives propose plausible mechanisms through which broken homes may affect delinquency at the social level. These include the control theory, learning perspective, and the strain theory" (Wells & Rankin as cited in Rebellon, 2002).

Traditionally people are conditioned to think of the family unit as a healthful and nurturing environment in which children prosper and parents realize their full potential, but that is not the case in all situations. Broken homes are homes where there is only one biological parent present for whatever reason. One of the main reasons for broken homes is due to a divorce between parents which ultimately affects the child in many ways. "Research has yielded severe broad conclusions concerning the relationship between broken homes and delinquency at the individual level of analysis" (Rebellon, 2002).

Delinquency among adolescents is due to a large range of factors and can include effects of divorce but is not limited to only that. "To think of the family as a potential cause or correlate of crime is not something that society as a whole is conditioned to do. Although, not ignoring the family environment many criminologists have tended to seek explanations for crime in contextual conditions such as poverty, inequality, school failure, and broken homes as a result of delinquency" (Straus & Lincoln as cited in Pope, 1988). The researcher will go into further detail to explain theories that are associated with broken homes and delinquency along with other aspects of the family.

离婚——DIVORCE

Divorce hurts everyone who is touched by it or has to experience it first hand; it is not something that just parents are affected by. One of the major functions of the family is to protect, teach, and train children so they can grow up to be competent and productive adults. "Divorce is more common today in our society that ever before, with approximately 50 percent of all marriages ending in divorce" (Price & Kunz, 2003). Research also predicted that "two-thirds of all marriages in the 21st century will end in divorce" (Martin and Bumpass as cited in Price et al, 2003). Due to this high average of divorce the children in the home are being affected in a negative way and not being given the attention that is needed to help them through such an ordeal that effects the family as well as the parents. "Juveniles from broken homes are processed through the system at higher rates than peers from intact families" (Price et al, 2003).

The research on divorce can go either way by having good effects and bad effects but it has been proven as an important factor on the relationship between broken homes and delinquency. Another important factor that often gets set aside is the poverty level of children in broken homes and how it may play a role in delinquency. "A meta-analysis conducted in 1991 concludes that the prevalence of delinquency in broken homes is 10-15 percent higher than in intact homes" (Rankin and Wells as cited in Price et al, 2003). Other research conducted by the Texas Youth Authority in 2001 shows that three out of four adolescents committed to state correctional facilities come from homes that have experienced divorce, parents remarrying, or separation (Gelles, 1989).

Divorce is the most common factor in adolescents and delinquency but it is important to remember it is not the only thing that affects a choice of breaking the law. The environment and attitudes of those in their immediate family and friends also will play a large role. "A number of studies have determined that adolescents adjustment reflects the quality of the relationship between them and their parents whether they are divorced or not" (May, Vartanian & Virgo, 2002). How parents enforce rules fairly and rationally build a stronger relationship because their children respect them and accept their authority. Research shows "Adolescents who report close relationships with their parents also express greater emotional wellbeing and thus are less likely to engage in high-risk behavior" (Baumrind as cited in May, et al, 2002). When looking at the full picture a divorce that is bad and effects the children in a negative way can lead to delinquency, but a divorce that ends well and does not have a negative effect on the children will not necessarily lead to delinquency. Different factors will lead to different outcomes. There is no cut and dry conclusion that divorce and broken homes lead to a life of delinquency.

理论——THEORIES

Research concludes that there are no mechanisms linking broken homes to delinquency but there are three leading perspectives that can attempt to explain the broken homes and delinquency link. These theories include; the control theory, the learning perspective, and the strain perspective. Each theory has its own viewpoint on why adolescents act the way they do whether good or bad and describes how the family plays a role in adolescent's behavior.

The control theory has three components. "The first component is the social bond that is acquired between individuals, second is direct control, and third is self-control. This theory is the most complex and ambitious but is also the best to explain how the theory fits into an adolescent's life" (Rebellon, 2002). Social bond theory suggests that individuals engage in delinquency to the degree that they fail to "(1) form a strong affective attachment to their parents or caregivers; (2) develop a stake in conformity that promotes rational commitment to conventional norms; (3) seek behavioral involvement in conventional activities; and (4) adopt a strong belief that conventional norms merit respect" (Hirschi as cited in Rebellon, 2002). The social bonds theory explains broken homes through the four elements stated above and the lack of commitment that one gains through these bonds. Without them adolescents are more likely to not be successful in society. Also, "preliminary research suggests that broken homes may inhibit parent/child attachment, which in turn promotes delinquency" (Rebellon, 2002). The research has not yet established an official relationship between the two so there is more research to come on that topic.


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