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从居民角度的旅游开发策略

时间:2016-01-29 09:01来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

从居民角度的旅游开发策略
Strategies Of Tourism Development From Resident Perspective


介绍

协调和配合被称为旅游规划的关键元素。旅游不能孤立地被计划和管理,居民为了实现经济、社会和环境目标在旅游发展应该被提到。旅游,为目的地提供机会,然而,它也可能导致一些居民的威胁。旅游管理者越来越认识和欣赏到旅游目的地中的当地社区所发挥的重要作用,从而在管理和发展目标中建立策略包括当地社区。(Nyaupane and Thapa 2004, 2006).

一旦社区成为目的地,在社区居民的生活受到旅游业的影响,和支持旅游社区整个人口的发展是至关重要的,计划,成功操作和旅游业的可持续发展 (Jurowski, 1994).

先前的研究已经表明,支持旅游的居民对旅游业可持续发展的成功至关重要(Andereck &沃格特,2000;Jurowski & Gursoy,2004)。旅游发展战略的成功不应该仅仅根据游客人数的增加或收入大小来被测量。旅游也应该被评估,根据它如何被集成到现有的当地社区的整体发展目标,以及旅游相关的投资和收入被用于那些社区受益。旅游业发展确实可以有利于当地社区如果他们的需求和兴趣为主的目标行业(Brohman, 1996).

旅游目的地的当地社区居民也越来越多的被给予机会,对自己的资源和民生基础设施做出决定(科克伦和攻丝机,2006)。但居民参与旅游的条件不同的国家是不一样的。

介绍——Introduction

Coordination and collaboration are known as key elements in tourism planning. Tourism cannot be planned and managed in isolation, the achievement of Economic, social, and environmental objective of the residents should be mentioned in tourism development. Tourism, provides opportunities for the destination, however, it may also cause some threats for residents. Tourism managers are increasingly recognizing and appreciating the vital role played by local communities in tourism destinations and have thus established strategies to include local communities in the management and development of destinations. (Nyaupane and Thapa 2004, 2006).

Once a community becomes a destination, the lives of residents in the community are affected by tourism, and the support of the entire population in the tourism community is essential for the development, planning, successful operation and

sustainability of tourism (Jurowski, 1994).

Previous research has demonstrated that support of tourism by residents is essential for successful sustainable development of tourism (Andereck & Vogt, 2000; Jurowski & Gursoy, 2004).The success of a strategy of tourism development ought not to be measured just in terms of increasing tourist numbers or revenues. Tourism should also be assessed according to how it has been integrated into the broader development goals of existing local communities, as well as the ways in which tourism-related investments and revenues have been used to benefit those communities. Tourism development can indeed be positive for local communities if their needs and interests are given priority over the goals of the industry(Brohman, 1996).

Local community residents in the tourism destinations are increasingly being afforded the opportunity to make decisions over their own resources and livelihood infrastructure (Cochrane and Tapper, 2006). But the condition of resident participation in tourism is not the same for different countries. Compared with many developed countries, local residents in many third world countries do not have such opportunities to share in decision making about their hometown tourism. Mowforth and Munt, (2003) explain, with vast evidence, how local communities in Third World countries being exploited. Little control is in their hands to steer the direction of tourism development in their regions. Their views are rarely heard and their opportunities to nurture their low budget entrepreneurial tourism businesses are frequently frustrated by the bigger external investors.

A large proportion of the local population should benefit from tourism, rather than merely bearing the burden of its costs. Moreover, the industry ought not to forget that destinations are essentially communities (Blank, 1989). In many Third World countries, a more appropriately planned tourism development process is needed which would both spread its costs and benefits more equitably and which would be more sensitive to its social and cultural impacts. This would not only reduce the need for local residents to trade off quality of life and social costs for economic growth, but would also contribute to a more broadly based positive attitude toward tourism (Mansfield 1992). Many analysts call for greater local participation in the Third World tourism sector to permit a more equitable distribution of its costs and benefits (Blank 1989).

It is suggested that identifying residents' attitudes toward tourism impacts and related competitive strategies is a valuable help for the tourism development planning in the region.

开题讨论——Statement of the Problem

Considering the importance of residents, as main stakeholders who have a key role in tourism development, many studies are carried out by the researchers in the developed countries about resident attitude toward tourism. Among them are Lankford and Howard (1994), Hernandez et al., (1996), Schroeder (1996), Ryan and Montgomery (1994), Nicholas (2007), Williams and Lawson (2001). But unfortunately, hardly any work has been devoted to examining residents' attitudes in developing countries (Andrew Lepp, 2007).

Kermanshah province in western Iran is one of the main tourism destinations in the region where unfortunately resident's attitudes have not been considered and local people have not been involved in tourism decision making.

The problem of the study is to examine residents' perceptions toward tourism impacts and their support for competitive strategies of tourism development in Kermanshah province of Iran.

研究问题——Research Questions

1. To what extent are perceived economic impacts of tourism related to support of tourism development?

2. To what extent are perceived social impacts of tourism related to support of tourism development?

3. To what extent are perceived environmental impacts of tourism related to support of tourism development?

4. To what extent is perceived community attachment related to support of tourism development?

5. Is there a relationship between support of tourism development and their support for tourism competitive strategies?

研究方法论——RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

There is a positive relationship between perceived economic impacts of tourism and support for tourism development.

There is a positive relationship between perceived social impacts of tourism and support of tourism development.

There is a positive relationship between perceived environmental impacts of tourism and support of tourism development.

There is a positive relationship between perceived community attachment of tourism and support of tourism development.

There is a positive relationship between resident's support of tourism development and support for tourism competitive strategies.

定义——Definitions

Attitude: An individual's subjective feeling of favor or dislike toward a person, object,behavior, issues, event, etc. (Ajzen, 1980).

Community Attachment: "the social bond and local sentiment residents express toward their community" (Jurowski, 1998, p. 31), and attachments " to biophysical or landscape features of place" (Brehm et al., 2006, p. 146).

Local Community: "A complex system of friendship and kinship networks and formal and informal associational ties rooted in family life and on-going socialization

process" (Kasarda & Janowitz, 1974, p. 329).

Sustainable Development: Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (United Nations World Commission on the Environment and Development, 1987).

Economic impacts of tourism: The changes that are brought by the process or the influence of tourism development in the economic aspect of a community.

Social impacts of tourism: The changes that are brought by the process or the influence of tourism development in the social aspect of a community.

Environmental impacts of tourism: The changes that are brought by the process or the influence of tourism development in the environmental aspect of a community.



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