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变更管理的理论和模型

时间:2016-02-21 17:06来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

变更管理的理论和模型
Theories and models of change management


在这个世界上没有什么是不变的静态的状态。一切都是变化的。同样的,组织也正在改变。如果我们看几十回事情已经改变了很多。改变既不消失,也不消散。它是一个过程是不可避免的。重要的是我们如何管理变化得到最好的。改变一个公司的主要驱动力是创新和尝试新的管理风格和工具。变化可以带来财富的公司提高利润和满足员工的变化被妥善处理提供了适当的管理策略,然而,如果组织没有遇到合适和有效管理策略然后它可以严重影响公司在最坏的情况下甚至崩溃或破产。因此,一个组织所面临的变化是计划,组织,指导,控制和有效引导。这需要一个好的领导质量领导人谁。根据组织,领导人可以CEO,经理,或董事会主席。

在不同的时间,有许多管理思想家已经提出了很多不同的理论和模型对变更管理的性质以及如何有效地管理这些变化更好的组织。本文的下一部分将着眼于不同的管理思想家和他们的管理理论和模型及其相关性与不断变化的业务环境和它是如何组织接受的关键变化的繁荣和进步。

第一和最受欢迎的变更管理理论是由库尔特·列文(1890 - 1947)。列文的模型很简单但是其他变更管理理论都是基于这个模型。列文的模型解冻的变化分为三个阶段,变化和冻结3阶段的变化。

Nothing in this world is at the state of constant static. Everything is changing. Likewise, organisations are also changing all the time. If we look few decades back things have changed a lot. Change neither disappears nor dissipates. It is a process which is inevitable. What is important is how we manage the change to get the best out of it. Change is the major driving force for a company to be innovative and experiment with new management styles and tools. Changes can bring fortune in the company with improved profit margins and satisfied employees provided that the changes are handled properly with appropriate management strategies, however, if the organisations fails to come across the appropriate and effective management strategies then it can affect the company badly and at worst even collapsing or bankruptcy. So, the changes that an organisation face has to be planned, organised, directed, controlled and channelled effectively. This requires a good leadership quality in the leader whoever that might be. Leaders can be CEO, Mangers, Chairperson or Board of Directors depending on the organisation.

There are many management thinkers at different times who have proposed many different theories and model regarding the nature of change management and how to manage the changes effectively for better of the organisations. The next section of this essay will look at the different management thinkers and their management theories and models and their relevance with the changing business environment and how it is crucial for an organisation to undergo changes for its prosperity and progress.

One of the first and most popular theories of change management was given by Kurt Lewin (1890-1947). Lewin's model is rather simple however other change management theories are based on this model. Lewin's model of change is divided into three stages of unfreeze, change and freeze referring 3 stages of changes

The first step in the change in the behaviour is to unfreeze the existing situation which is also called quo state which is the equilibrium state. Unfreezing of the quo state is very important to break the resistance from the change. It can be done with either increasing driving forces away from the quo state or decrease the restraining forces that negatively affects the movement away from the equilibrium or use the both method .(Stephen, 2003)

The second step which is the change stage is the movement where all the changes happen. This movement can be facilitated with by persuading the employees to agree on the changes, telling them the benefits of the changes and making them sure that everybody has to work together to get the best out of the changes and show them new perspectives.(Stephen, 2003)

The third step is the freezing stage which is the step after the change has been implemented. This stage of the change is required for the changes to stick over time. Sustainability is very important when new changes have been made. The new changes have to be properly institutionalised and formally accepted by all. The actual integration of the new changes takes place in this unfreeze stage. (Stephen, 2003)

According to Lewin (1951) driving forces facilitate change because they push employees in the desired direction. Restraining forces hinder change because they push employees in the opposite direction. Therefore, these forces must be analyzed and Lewin's three-step model can help shift the balance in the direction of the planned change. Changes are very crucial since changes makes new and improved ideas to implement into action possible. (Kanter, R. et al. 1992)

After Lewin's model many other writers upgraded his theory making it more effective however the fundamental aspects were still there. One of the most popular model of change management is Kotter's eight step model (Kotter, 1995). According to Kotter, successful implementation of change depends on the eight steps as proposed by him. Skipping any one of the eight steps might create illusion of speeding of the process but it does not improve the effectiveness of change.(Singh,1963)

His eight steps include the following steps:

Create a sense of urgency: This step includes analysing the market and examining the possible risks and opportunities along with the competition in the market. (Kotter,1996)

Establishing the powerful group to guide the change: This step is to create a group which is capable to handle the changes and has enough power to lead the effort. The group should be encouraged to work as a team. (Kotter,1996)

Develop a vision: This stage includes creating a proper vision of change in the organisation. Apart from this the change should be highly focused and should be in rather simple form so that everyone understands and accepts. (Kotter,1996)

Communicate the vision : The vision that has been proposed has to be delivered or explained to everyone. A good communication of the vision is very important. (Kotter,1996)

Empower staff: The next step is empowering the staffs. This step includes removing hurdles in the change and encouraging new and unconventional ideas and ways of doing things. (Kotter,1996)

Ensure there are short terms win: It is very important to keep the staffs motivated. Short term wins help the staffs to remain motivated. This also helps the support needed for the change. (Kotter,1996)

Consolidate gains: Organisation should check the policies that inhibit or restrain the changes and if there are any, they should be changed. The policies that catalyse the changes should be brought in to action to speed up the change and efficiency. (Kotter,1996)

Institutionalise the change in the culture of the organisation: the changes that have been made should be institutionalised or embedded in the organisation as a culture and should be linked with the performance and leadership. (Kotter,1996)

The first four steps of Kotter's eight model act as a defroster a hardened equilibrium.

Stages five to seven is the introduction of many new changes. It resembles with the change phase in the Lewin's model. The last phase grounds the changes that have been made into the business or organisation culture. The success and improvement of the organisation depends on the proper follow of the sequence. ( Kotter,1996)

The next change management model is the ADKAR model proposed by Jeffery M Hait (2006). ADKAR is basically a framework to understand change in the individual level which was later used in the field of business and management. It comprises of five elements which are Awareness (of the need of change), Desire ( to support and participate in the change), Knowledge( of how to change), Ability( to implement required skills and behaviours) and Reinforcement( to sustain the change). (Hait,2006)

Awareness represents the understanding of the need of the change along with the nature and the affects of not going through the change. (Haitt,2006)

Desire represents the desire to participate in the change. Even though desire is much more about the personal choice, it can be created with the intrinsic environment. There are many factors that create desire in the individual about the changes. (Haitt,2006)

Knowledge is the basically the trainings and information access about how to change. Knowledge is very important as it is very necessary to have trainings and information access to implement the change. (Haitt,2006)

Ability shows the actual implementation of the change at the required pace. It also represents the conversion for knowledge into action. How well the changes have been executed depends on the ability of the group or an individual. (Haitt,2006)

Reinforcement represents the sustainability of the change. Sustainability depends on both the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. External factors include recognition, rewards and celebrations that are tied to the realisation of the change. The internal factor is the sense of achievement among the individuals regarding the change.(Haitt,2006)

The ADKAR model is in very much sequential manner. It clearly represents how an individual experiences change. Desire cannot come before awareness because desires are only triggered when we are aware, similarly knowledge cannot come before desire as we do not seek for the knowledge before we have desire for it and similarly ability and reinforcement. (Haitt,2006)

Having discussed the models of change management it is very important to know that these models were not created just for the sake of creating. Their implications have been highly beneficial in the real context. It is very important to realise that the importance of the change in the corporate society. Technological innovations and globalisation has made this world a much smaller place. Changing according to the changing world is necessary otherwise you just lag behind and can become very hard to get along all over again.



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