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项目管理是一项技术

时间:2016-03-21 16:59来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

项目管理是一项技术
Project Management Is A Set Of Techniques Management Essay

我总结的任务是关于项目管理。首先在P1,我们已经描述了项目管理的背景和项目管理的原则。现代意义上的项目管理开始于1950年代。项目管理是一个方法和一门技术,基于公认的管理学原理,被用于规划、评估和控制工作,根据规范,并在预算范围内及时激活达到期望的结果。在P2我们已经描述成功与失败的项目标准和项目成功的尺寸。时间是非常重要的工具,对项目管理而言。成本管理的公司总是有吸引力的工具。性能对项目管理来说,也是很重要的任务。如果这些元素没有在恰当的时间管理,这导致项目的失败。在P3我们讨论项目信息支持系统。如果项目团队是财力雄厚的,那么这个项目会成功的。时间资源也是一个重要的事情,因为项目团队成员必须按时完成他们的活动项目的感觉。项目中使用的材料应该是质量好的材料。在P4我们讨论项目关闭需求以及项目评估。我也解释了如何终止一个项目。项目评估是一种审查制度,项目团队成员很容易解决这个问题。项目终止意味着你的项目被完成和目标实现。

通过传递标准的任务之后,我们完成了价值部分。在M1我们开发一个工作分解结构和产品项目分解结构。在M2,我们所做的为项目结束的应急计划,也要求和描述项目的计划方法成功的结束。

The assignment which I summarized is about the project management. First of all in P1 we have described background of project management and principles of project management. Project management began in the modern sense began in the 1950s. Project management is a method and a set of techniques based on the accepted principles of management used for planning, estimating, and controlling work activates to reach a desired end result on time within budget and according to specification. In P2 we have describe success & failure criteria for project and dimensions of project success. Time is very important tool as far as project management is concerned. Cost always was attractive tool for management of a firm. Performance is also important task for a project management if these elements are not managed at proper time this leads towards the failure of the project. In P3 we have discuss project information support system. If project team is financially strong then the project will be successful. Time resource is also an important thing because project team members have to complete their activities on time for sensation of a project. Material used in the project should be good quality material. In P4 we have discuss project close out requirements along with project appraisal. Also I have explained how to terminate a project. Project appraisal is a review system in which project team members solve the problem easily. Project termination means that your project is being completed and goals are achieved properly.

After doing pass criteria of our assignment we done the merits parts. In M1 we have develop a Work Breakdown Structure and Product Breakdown Structure for a project. In M2 we have done contingency planning for project close out requirements and also describe the planned approaches for successful ending of project.

Finally we have done the distinction part of the assignment in which we have given recommendations about the project applicability and its scope.

Task for P1:-

For P1 consider the following tasks:

Describe the emergence of project management as discipline of management

Discuss project management system elements

Discuss external and internal environmental elements influencing project management

项目管理的背景——Background of Project management:-

In this brief history of project management all the major developments and events in the discipline as far back as there are records. Although there has been some form of project management since early civilization, project management in the modern sense began in the 1950s. We have come a long way since then and recognition of how important the profession is has helped it develop, and will continue to push its development over the next decade.

As a discipline project management developed from different fields of application including construction, engineering, telecommunications and defense. The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era. Prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad-hoc basis using mostly Gantt charts, or with informal techniques and tools. This article looks at four periods in the development of modern project management.

The importance of project management is an important topic because all organizations small or large at one time or other are involved in implementing new undertakings. These undertakings may be diverse, such as, the development of a new product or service; the establishment of a new production line in a manufacturing enterprise; a public relations promotion campaign; or a major building programme. Whilst the 1980's were about quality and the 1990's were all about globalization, the 2000's are about velocity.

项目管理的原则——Principles of Project Management:-

Principles of project management are usually associate with the management of people. The management of people includes defining what the business will do, planning for the number and types of staff who will do it. Organizing the staff, monitoring their performance of the tasks assigned them, and finally bringing a close to their effort. Project management is a method and a set of techniques based on the accepted principles of management used for planning, estimating, and controlling work activates to reach a desired end result on time within budget and according to specification.

Defining:-

That is the one of the first task for project managers is to define the work that needs to be done in the area of responsibility. in project management the defining phase is very formal while in people management it can often be informal.

For the project manager, defining the tasks to do is a preliminary phase of the project life cycle. In this phase the (customer) and project manager come to an agreement about several aspects of the project. The defining phase set the scope of project. it forms the basis for deciding if a particular function or feature is within the scope of the project.

Planning:-

Planning is important task in project management. Planning involves deciding on the types of resources that will be needed to discharge the responsibilities of the department. Planning and identifying the types of skills needed and the number of people possessing those skills. The project plane is indispensable. Not only has a road mapped that how the work will perform but it is also a tool for decision making. The plan suggests alternative approaches, schedules, and resource requirement to the project manager. A complete plan clearly state the tasks that need to be done, why they are necessary, who will do what, when it will be completed, what resources will be needed, and what criteria must be met in order for project to be declared complete and successful. Planning reduces uncertainty. Increase understanding and improve the efficiency.

Executing:-

In that stage we authorize our staff to perform the task that defines their respective job. Each staff member knows what to do, how to accomplish the work and when to have it completed. Executing the project involves four steps. In addition to organizing the people who will work on the project, a project manager also needs to do the following:-

The specific resources e.g. person, power, material and money that will required to accomplish the work.

Assign workers to activities

Schedule activates with specific start and end dates

The final specification of project schedule brings together all the variables associated with the project.

Controlling:-

Controlling is also the important task in project management. in that stage we have to consider the following points

What must be accomplished in the project?

When each task must be accomplished?

Who is responsible for completing each task?

What deliverables are expected as a result of completing the project?

In the help of controlling process we know t that our project is working according to the plane or not. The project manager must have a system in place that constantly mentors the project progress, or lack thereof. the controlling system summarizes the complete work measured against the plan and also look a head to forewarn of potential problems.

Closing:-

Closing a project is a formal means signaling the completion of the project work and the delivery of the results to the customer. in managing the people, the equivalent action is to signal the end of a task with some sign of completion and assign the individual to another task, the closing face evaluates what occurred during the project and provides the historical information for use in planning and executing later projects. This historical information is best kept in a document every good closing stage provide the answer of basic question.

Do the project deliverables meet the expectation of the requestor?

Did the project team complete the project according to plan?

What information was collected that will help with later project?

What lesson have we learned from this project?

The closing phase is very important in project management.

项目管理系统元素——Project Management System Element:-

Time:-

The customer specifies a timeframe or deadline date within which the project must be completed to a certain extent cost and time are inversely related to one another. It is consumed weather we use or not. The objective of the project manager is to use the future time allotted to the project in the most effective and productive way. Future time can be resource to be traded within a project or a cross project. Once a project has begun, the prime resource available to the project manager to keep the project on schedule or get it back on schedule is time. A good project manager realizes this and protects the future time resource very carefully.



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