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指导MBA专业termpaper范文:Outsourcing of Enterprises

论文价格: 免费 时间:2018-09-29 17:53:42 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
导读:这是一篇MBA专业的termpaper范文,讨论了企业的外包。目前,较为流行的一种价值链的管理提倡将企业价值链中价值较小的环节进行外包。而外包的关键,就是将自己不擅长的和价值创造最小的业务由外部承接,实现企业整体价值的增值。但在实践中,企业对于非核心业务的判断并不明晰,一般会认为企业的物流属于非增值环节,倾向于将其外包。
 
The key to outsourcing is to take the business which is not good at and the least value creation from the outside and realize the value increment of the whole enterprise.
 
外包的关键是从外部采取不擅长和创造价值最少的业务,实现整个企业的价值增值。
 
At present, the management of a more popular value chain advocates outsourcing the less valuable parts of the enterprise value chain. Nike, for example, focuses on research and development and marketing, while leaving manufacturing to low-cost shoemakers that are constantly changing, first in Japan, Western Europe, South Korea, and then in Chinese Taipei, China and India. It can be seen from such a route that the profit-driven capital has been looking for the lowest-cost outsourcing strategy. It was the cost of labor that determined shoemaking, so Nike eventually moved manufacturing to China, where labor costs were low. Of course, if China enters an era of high welfare benefits and labor costs are similar to those in developed countries, for example: when it is cheaper to drive a car than to take a taxi, then Nike's processing plant will move at that time! Such outsourcing of production is based on the satisfaction of manufacturing quality and low cost.
 
目前,更受欢迎的价值链管理主张外包企业价值链中价值较低的部分。例如,耐克公司专注于研发和营销,同时将制造业转移到不断变化的低成本制鞋商,首先是日本,西欧,韩国,然后是中国台北,中国和印度。从这样的路线可以看出,利润驱动的资本一直在寻找成本最低的外包策略。决定制鞋的是劳动力成本,因此耐克最终将制造业转移到劳动力成本较低的中国。当然,如果中国进入一个福利待遇高的时代,劳动力成本与发达国家类似,例如:当开车比出租车便宜时,那时耐克的加工厂将会搬家!这种生产外包是基于对制造质量的满意度和低成本。
 
In addition, there are many virtual enterprises, such as the famous children's clothes of parkland, which do not make children's clothes themselves, but focus on design.
 
The key to outsourcing is to take the business which is not good at and the least value creation from the outside and realize the value increment of the whole enterprise. In fact, China's state-owned enterprise reform has made good use of this strategy. The former state-owned enterprises are large and complete, with hospitals, primary schools and so on. It is like a small society. Under such circumstances, how can we expect elephants to dance? Therefore, the most important part of the reform of state-owned enterprises is the fire. This is typical of outsourcing what you are not good at. It is through this practice that soes focus on operation and regain their vitality.
 
What corresponds to outsourcing is that the enterprise extends to the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain to achieve synergistic effect, reduce cost and realize value-added. So how should companies choose between outsourcing and integration?
 
Generally speaking, large monopolistic enterprises tend to integrate the industrial chain. Due to the advantages of capital, they improve the monopoly power of the market through controlling various resources. In order to enter the highly competitive market, some small enterprises choose to focus on their core competitive projects. Gain a share of the market through the transcendence or differentiation of core advantages. Of course, this core competitiveness of enterprises is to be recognized and accepted by consumers.
 
However, in practice, the enterprise's judgment on non-core business is not clear, and it is generally believed that the enterprise's logistics is a non-value-added link, which tends to be outsourced. But such standards are not universal. Joyo, for example, has its own logistics and aims to meet customer needs to the maximum extent possible. Compared with traditional shopping, e-commerce has a convenient feature. You can order the goods you want without leaving the house, but there are also defects, that is, you cannot get the goods in the first time. Therefore, excellence works on logistics, because logistics is the only opportunity to meet customers face to face. At present two big net buys the book website, dangdang and outstanding are not equal in the purchase operation interface, so only then in the logistics, the warehouse up and down efforts. That is to maximize the variety and delivery speed to meet consumers. It can be seen that customer satisfaction is the primary criterion for excellence in non-core business. By the same token, should companies that are engaged in everyday consumer goods use this as a standard for judging non-core businesses? Therefore, management is really an art, not a pure science. The situation of the enterprise is very different, the simple imitation must not be.
 
Vanke, the industry's leader, has been a firm enforcer of this strategy, an outsourcing enthusiast. Everything is outsourced except "brand", "design" and "manufacturing". The industry also has the opposite "alien" - country garden. Country garden implements "the integration", will design, the building construction, the decoration, the property management all USES own pattern, even has own battlefield, the cement factory, the brick and tile factory and the vegetable garden realizes the cost control successfully. We can see that companies with different strategies are equally successful. But why? First of all, there are many reasons for vanke to adopt business outsourcing. In my opinion, the main reason is that after the large-scale expansion of vanke, its control power and capital demand are challenged. Therefore, wang shi came up with the idea of outsourcing. And proposed that the new benchmark of vanke is "Nike". I think the selection of this benchmark is not considered. As mentioned above, the quality of daily consumer goods will not become the bottleneck of manufacturers of daily consumer goods after fierce competition. Industry entry threshold is low, in addition to quality, customers also value style and comfort. As a sneaker, the function is also the focus of consumers. Therefore, Nike has outsourced manufacturing to manufacturers in developing countries with good cost performance and focused on its core competitiveness: research and development and brand. Cut off from the red sea and enter the blue sea. Vanke benchmarking as "Nike" do not know whether to consider the difference between the house and shoes? People can wear a lot of shoes in their life. As a woman, they may buy three or four pairs of shoes in a year. According to the average age of a woman is 80 years old. But can a person buy more than 100 houses in his lifetime? Don't! So what is the core competitiveness of the real estate industry? Isn't it true that the real estate industry is not suitable for outsourcing? Scholars such as harvard business school professor christensen believe that in the early stages of product development, the product's functions are far from meeting the needs of mainstream customers, when the competition between companies is based on product performance. In this case, integrated companies have more advantages than non-integrated companies because they organize all the links in the value chain under the same roof and can develop products with better performance. However, with the development of technology, product performance has been able to meet the needs of most customers, and companies have focused their competition on convenience, customization, price and flexibility. At this point, vertical integration will become a disadvantage instead of an advantage, so the industry will tend to diverge. Whoever controls the interdependent links in the value chain can make more profits. Interdependencies are areas where companies are still trying to meet their customers with better product performance. This conclusion confirms the above views on shoes and houses. Therefore, vanke's outsourcing starts from the challenge of management and capital, rather than the counterbid with Nike.
 
Let's take another look at the emergence of country garden: what makes it choose the integration strategy? Country garden's core competitiveness is low cost. In the national increasingly unbearable high housing prices, Shouting the slogan "a villa of 500,000 yuan", no doubt in the market earned enough popularity, country garden differentiated to target consumers as not too much money and have a strong desire to buy the white-collar, this group of people for price has considerable sensitivity. As a result of low cost advantage, promote country garden to hit extremely competitive price. An integrated strategy is a boon for low costs. But integration requires a high degree of control. Country garden is a typical family business, carrying out Yang guoqiang's paternalistic vertical management, control is quite strong.
 
From the above comparative analysis, we can see that the choice of outsourcing strategy needs to consider many factors such as market, consumer, enterprise scale, enterprise development stage and so on. Even in the same industry, the choice of outsourcing strategy is different due to the diversity of enterprises.
 
Since there are so many elements to consider when choosing an outsourcing strategy, let's take the most intuitive approach -- let the financial Numbers speak for themselves. The consideration based on cost reduction has limitations, and the "profit" indicator can be considered for consideration. Why use the accounting word "profit"? Because, it is possible that the simple cost reduction brings about the quality reduction, and then the profit reduction. For example, if the enterprise is more professional after outsourcing, it is actually considering the level of "profit". If the outsourced business is done more professionally and brings greater value to the enterprise, even if the cost is increased, the income is higher, and the final result is big "profit", then the business should be outsourced.#p#分页标题#e#
 
There are also limitations in the consideration of "profits". After all, "profits" represents only "short-term achievements", and cannot realize the long-term dynamic measurement of the enterprise after the decision. Because, every year business profit account will be cleared. For example, consumers will be attracted by the quality improvement brought by outsourcing. The agglomeration of consumers is a long process.
 
It seems that it is really necessary to consider carefully whether the outsourcing of business should be done or not. Can the method of introducing cash flow discount in finance be used as an experiment? This is the author of an idea, believe that the test of practice, the answer will be clear.
 
For companies, whatever strategy they choose, they have to choose the best, not the most popular, not the most western.

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