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指导英国心理学termpaper:英国大学生心理健康状况研究

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-04-08 14:04:28 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
A Study on Mental Health of Chinese Undergraduates in the UK英国大学生心理健康状况研究
1.0 Introduction 简介
截至2015年底,由于中英两国在社会历史,政治制度,经济发展水平等方面存在差异,大约有12万名在英国留学的中国学生(2015年高等教育统计机构)由于两国成员在价值观,思维和行为模式上的差异(Hunley,2010),英国的中国学生不可避免地受到英国文化的影响,影响所带来的最大问题是中国学生心理健康问题,如孤独,抑郁,烦躁,放纵(Wang,2014)。如果这些心理问题得不到妥善解决,不仅会给中国学生的未来发展带来巨大障碍,还会给英国教育界的国际吸引力和形象带来一定的损害(Rudd and Waring,2012)。本研究从文化差异的角度探讨了中国留学生心理问题产生的原因,以及心理问题的负面影响,以期对如何解决这些心理问题进行推荐。
By the end of 2015, there were about 120,000 Chinese students who have studied in the UK (Higher education statistics agency, 2015), due to differences between China and Britain in terms of social history, political system, levels of economic development, as well as differences between members of the two countries in values, thinking and behavior patterns (Hunley, 2010), Chinese students in the UK are inevitably affected by the impact of British culture, the biggest problem arising by the impact is bringing Chinese students mental health problems, such as loneliness, depression, irritability, indulgence (Wang, 2014). If these mental problems can not be solved properly, it will not only bring a huge obstacle to the future development of Chinese students, but also bring certain damage to the international appeal and image of the British education sector (Rudd and Waring, 2012). The study was from the perspective of cultural differences to discuss the causes of mental problems of Chinese students studying in the UK, and the negative effects of the mental problems, so as to recommend on how to solve these mental problems.
2.0 Main body主体
2.1 Literature review 文献综述
到目前为止,西方研究人员已经提出了许多不同的文化适应理论和模型,如欧贝格的文化冲击模型,它根据文化适应的生理和心理感受来描述他们经历的文化影响,作为一个由四个阶段组成的过程:蜜月,危机,复苏和调整(Oberg,1960)。 Lysgaar(1955)提出了U  - 曲线假说,该假设指出,旅居者的文化适应过程一般经历三个阶段,即初始调整,危机,重新调整。阿德勒(1975)提出了一个文化适应的五阶段模型,它将文化适应过程分为五个阶段:接触,解体,重新融合,自治和独立。
So far, Western researchers have proposed a number of different theories and models of cultural adaptation, such as Oberg’s culture shock model, which is according to the physiological and psychological feelings of cultural adapters to describe their experienced cultural impact as a process consisting of four stages: honeymoon, crisis, recovery and adjustment (Oberg, 1960). Lysgaar (1955) put forward U - curve hypothesis, which states that the process of cultural adaptation of sojourners generally goes through three stages, namely initial adjustment, crisis, regained adjustment. Adler (1975) proposed a five-stage model of cultural adaptation, which divides cultural adaptation process into five phases: contact, desintegration, reintegration, autonomy and independence.
The shortcomings of the above theory lie in taking the full assimilation of the mainstream society to immigrants as an ideal state, only emphasizing the unilateral influence of the mainstream society on cultural adapters and ignoring interactive impact between cultural adapters and a guest-home society. Then, John W. Berry's cultural adaptation model is a two-dimensional cross-cultural model of acculturation model which is applicable to multicultural societies (Berry, 1980). In this theoretical model, cultural adaptation is divided into four different types according to the attitudes of adapters: integration, separation, assimilation and marginalization (Berry, 1980). If the cultural adapters want to maintain their original cultural identity and cultural characteristics, they also want to establish and maintain a good relationship with the members of a mainstream society, it is a model of integration; if cultural adapters just want to keep their original cultural identity and cultural characteristics, they do not want to establish any contact with the members of a mainstream society, it belong to a separation model; if cultural adapters do not want to maintain their original cultural identity and cultural characteristics, and they are bent on establishing a good relationship with the members of a mainstream society to get the cultural identity of the mainstream society, that is assimilation model; if cultural adapters do not want to or can not maintain their original cultural identity and cultural characteristics, nor do them want or establish links with the members of a mainstream society, it belongs to marginalization.
2.2 Chinese society's attitude towards studying abroad
2.3 Higher education in the UK
2.4 Mental problems of Chinese students in the UK
2.4.1 Loneliness, a sense of closure
2.4.2 Irritability 
2.4.3 Anxiety, depression
2.4.4 Indulgent mood
2.5.1 Marginalization
2.5.2 Separation
2.5.3 Assimilation
2.6 Negative effects brought by mental health problems 
2.7 Discussion on cultural differences and mental health problems 
2.7.1 Education
2.7.2 Interpersonal relationship
2.7.3 Living habits
2.8 Recommendation
2.8.1 Cross-cultural training
2.8.2 Making more friends
2.8.3 Playing the roles of Chinese Students' Association
3.0 Conclusion
The differences between Chinese and English cultures in education, interpersonal communication and living habits are the main reasons for Chinese students' loneliness, depression, irritability, indulgence and other metal health problems. The consequences of these problems include: decline in performance, decreased physical conditions, failing to make friends, having violence, alcohol, cheating and other undesirable behavior. In this study, the author was based on Berry’s (1980) theory, from three perspectives: cross-cultural training, making friends and paying attention to the role of Chinese Students' Association to put forward recommendations on solving the mental health problems of Chinese students in the UK.  
 
References
Adler, P. S. (1975) . The transitional experience: An alternative view of culture shock. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 15, 13-23.
Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. Padilla, A. ( Ed. ). Acculturation: Theory, Models, and Some New Findings. Boulder: West view Press, 9- 25.
Cao, C. Zhu, C. and Meng, Q. (2016). An exploratory study of inter-relationships of acculturative stressors among Chinese students from six European union (EU) countries. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 55(11), 8-19.
Huang, R. (2013). International experience and graduate employability: Perceptions of Chinese international students in the UK. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 13(7), 87-96.
Hunley, H. A. (2010). Students’ functioning while studying abroad: The impact of psychological distress and loneliness. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(4), 386-392.
Lysgaard, S. (1955). Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fulbright grantees visiting the United States. Inter national Social Science Bulletin, 7, 45- 51.
McLeay, F. and Wesson, D. (2014). Chinese versus UK marketing students' perceptions of peer feedback and peer assessment. The International Journal of Management Education, 12(7), 142-150.
Oberg , K. ( 1960) . Cultural shock: Adjustment to new cultural environments.  Practical Anthropology, 7, 177 – 182
Peng, R. Z., Wu, W. P. and Fan, W. W. (2015). A comprehensive evaluation of Chinese college students’ intercultural competence. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 47(7), 143-157.
Rudd, B., Djafarova, E. and Waring, T. (2012). Chinese students' decision-making process: A case of a Business School in the UK. The International Journal of Management Education, 10(7), 129-138.
Wang, Y. (2014).Humor in British academic lectures and Chinese students’ perceptions of it. Journal of Pragmatics, 68(7), 80-93.
Yang, M., Webster, B. and Prosser, M. (2011). Travelling a thousand miles: Hong Kong Chinese students’ study abroad experience. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(1), 69-78.
Higher education statistics agency. (2015) International (non-UK) students in UK HE in 2014-15.
The Guardian. (2016). A guide to the government's new rules for international students.
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