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指导澳洲公共政策termpaper:什么是公共政策What is Public Policy?

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-04-15 14:07:08 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
What is Public Policy? 什么是公共政策?
1、 What is the role of public policy?公共政策的作用是什么?
我认为公共政策起到干预和稳定的作用,调节社会功能,促进经济健康发展。
I think a public policy plays a role of intervention and stabilisation.To adjustfunction of social and promote the healthy development of the economy
2、What is the role of government in modern states?政府在现代国家的作用是什么?
政府是统治土地及其人民的正式机构。政府的基本职能是提供社会制度环境,制定公共政策。
Government isthe formal institutions through which a land and its people are ruled. The basic function of government is to provide the social system environment and make public policy.
3、What factors should be take into account when making policy ?制定政策时应考虑哪些因素?
澳大利亚是一个自由民主的国家,因此在讨论政策制定时,我们需要考虑政府的性质,如自由主义、多元主义、联邦制和国际影响。
Australia is a liberal democratic state, therefore when we talk about policy making, we need to consider the character of  the government such as liberalism, pluralism, federalism and international influences.
Making Public Policy: Theory and Practice in the Australian Context公共政策制定:澳大利亚背景下的理论与实践
1、 Could you describe the concepts of actor?你能描述一下演员的概念吗?
澳大利亚公共政策进程的行动者(州或联邦层面)包括内阁、议会、政党、记者和媒体、政府和非政府组织的专家以及广泛的利益或压力团体。
Actors in public policy processes in Australia (at state or commonwealth levels) include cabinet, parliament, political parties, journalists and the media, experts in governmental and non-government organizations, and a wide range of interest or pressure groups. 
2、What is the meaning of pluralism and ‘corporatism’?多元主义和“社团主义”是什么意思?
“多元主义”和“社团主义”是对国家与利益集团或压力集团的关系提供不同解释的概念。机构是政策过程的中心,但其影响的程度和性质各不相同。
‘Pluralism’ and ‘corporatism’ are concepts offering different explanations about how the state relates to interest or pressure groups.Agency is central to the policy process, but the extent and nature of their influence is various.
3、What is the basic features of Australia’s system of government?
Federalism,it is a system of government characterized by a division of powers between two levels of government. Local government in Australia is not constitutionally recognized, and exists on the basis of State government legislation. 
Policy Analysis: Four Methods
1、Could you describe some methods of policy analysis?
Iwould like to list four different policy analysis: internal, external, comparative and policy discourse analysis, which applied according to policy objectives ,outcomesand requirements.
2、 Could you conclude “policy discourse analysis”?
The focus is the deep conceptual premises operating within how problems are represented. Analysts using this method to learn what social meanings contribute to the policy being seen to be necessary.
3、What is the role of policy analysis?
Policy analysis is a crucial step . Firstly, Policy makers must be able to see that their policies are achieving the desired effect. In addition, circumstances might change to render the policy redundant, or politically problematic. 
Topic 4 – Economic Policy
1、 Describe the importance of economic policy
The economyis a basic obligation of governments to ensure favorable conditions for production, trade and other economic activities. Economic policy, therefore, is not merely one policy domain among others (education, health, foreign relations, etc.) but an area of foremost concern to governments. 
2、What is the pre-Keynesian view?
On this view, the purpose of taxation was limited to the raising of revenue to pay for necessary government expenses,expenditure needed always to be minimised in order to avoid crowding out private activity.
3、What is pluralism and the ‘privilege’ of business?
Governments have only limited autonomy on economic policy,whichis constrained by the imperative of delivering the requisite conditions for continued capital accumulation, i.e. For business to make profits. 
Topic 5 – Welfare Policy
1. What is the definition of “welfare state”?
The welfare state refers to state-protected minimum standards of income, health, housing, education and personal social services, provided on the basis of a notion of rights and entitlements for citizens, rather than on the notion of charity. 
2.What is the historical background to the development of Australia’s welfare state.
In Australia, the origins of welfare come from social democratic ideas of a mixed economy, that is, a system underpinned by private enterprise complemented by public enterprise in the form of social services, and the redistribution of wealth through the tax-transfer welfare system. The economist
3.How about the Neo-conservatives see welfare?
Neo-conservatives see welfare as producing the worst characteristics in humans: laziness and disinclination to work; the inclination to focus on living in the present rather than planning for the future; an inclination towards defrauding the government system.
Topic 6 – Education Policy
1. How the federal system affects the provision of schools’ education in Australia?
For many decades, schools (and universities) evolved within relatively stable patterns of inter-governmental relations, with the Commonwealth playing only a limited role in education policy.
2. Describe the policy process in an institutionalist perspective.
Policy processes, in an institutionalist perspective, occur within the context of already established institutions – ‘norms, values, relationships, power structures and “standard operating procedures”’. Institutions are quite stable most of the time.
3.How about education in the information economy
In the contemporary information economy, innovation within high-tech industries draws extensively on research undertaken within the tertiary-education sector, and education generally is considered central to economic prosperity.
Topic 7 - Health policy
1. The importance of health.
Health is of political and ideological perspectives and economic interests, and in terms of social and cultural values. All citizens have a direct interest in the health-care system and a wide range of public and private actors participate in the policy process.
2 .Describe “market failure”.
The main types of ‘market failure’ are as follows: when there is a monopoly and abuse of market power, if there is insufficient or inadequate information available, when goods or services are ‘public goods’, when there are external cost of benefits (externalities or spillovers) resulting from a transaction in the market.
3.What standard to distinguish health systems?
Health systems can be organized in different ways, notably in terms of the role of private and public organizations and interests. 
Topic8 - Environment Policy
1. Understand the term environmental movement
In Australia, the environmental movement has had an important impact on politics and the political system, including a wave of institutional and legislative change, including significant shifts in Commonwealth–State relations.
2. Describe social movements
The social movements in the period since the 1960s – including women’s, peace, consumer, gay rights, animal liberation, ethnic, racial minority, and the environment movement – have brought about significant change to the politics and society of the Western.
3.Whyenvironmental issues need internationalized policy ?
Many environmental issues cannot be contained within national borders and have given rise to political processes and institutional structures at the transnational level.
Topic 11 – Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Policy
1. What is the harm of alcohol?
Alcohol consumption in Australia is widespread, and the level of risky or high risk consumption has significant effects on health, society and the economy. It contributes to disability and death through accidents, violence, suicide and homicide. 
2. How about attitudes towards alcohol?
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Both alcohol and illicit drug policies are deeply influenced by social and moral concerns, and political expedience. With regards to alcohol, although measures are taken to curb excessive drinking, the consumption of alcohol in Australia is considered ‘normal’, to the extent that not drinking is the exception to this norm.
3. What tensionsexist in drug policy-making?
Democratic-guided policy emphasizes the public or common good rather than the individual or private. Democratic decisions are determined according to that which is best for the community as a whole. 
 
Asylum Policy
1. Why we make distinguishes?
Different international and domestic laws apply. Importantly, the policy principle regarding refugees and asylum seekers is individual need, unlike migration policy principles that priorities skills or family reunion.
2. Describe the conclusion by external measures
For asylum seekers arriving by boat, immigration detention does not control their arrival, but controls their movement once they have entered the country. 
3. Propose some questions that used for policy discourse analysis.
Australia’s history of migration; 
Australia’s history of incarceration; concepts of racial otherness; 
the language surrounding asylum seekers.
 
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