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英国教育专业termpaper:A Multi-Trait Multi-Method Validation of Thr

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-05-20 16:07:44 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction引言
1.1Background背景
对于现代企业来说,如何利用有效的管理工具,鼓励员工将自己的技能和知识转化为企业的竞争优势,已成为企业人力资源管理的重要问题之一。一般来说,激励员工的方法很多,其中员工晋升是最有效的手段之一(Araki、Kawaguchi和Onozuka,2016)。使用科学的评估方法和标准,确保能够促进合适的员工充分调动所有员工的积极性和主动性,并在公司内创造公平、公正和开放的企业文化(Jaiswal和Dhar,2015年)。常用的方法有:自我报告(CV)、领导意见与面试(无领导小组面试)、多特征多方法等,所使用的特征包括专业知识、工作表现和生活意识等。For a modern enterprise, how to make use of effective management tools to encourage employees to change their skills and knowledge into a competitive advantage of the enterprise has become one of the most important issues of the enterprise’s human resource management. Generally speaking, there are many ways to motivate employees, among which employee promotion is one of the most effective means (Araki, Kawaguchi and Onozuka, 2016). The use of scientific assessment methods and standards ensures that the right staff can be promoted to fully mobilize the initiative and enthusiasm of all staff, and to create a fair, just and open corporate culture within a company (Jaiswal and Dhar, 2015). The commonly used methods include: self-report (CV), leader opinion and interview (leaderless group interview), multi-trait multi-method, and so on, the traits used include professional knowledge, work performance and living awareness and so on.
英国、美国等发达国家的人力资源管理研究与开发已有100多年的历史。有比较成熟的员工晋升经验和制度。他们也有一种比较成熟的员工特征评价方法,如多特征多方法。而我国的企业和学术界对人力资源管理的研究只有30年的历史,在我国企业员工评价方法和标准的应用上存在着许多偏差,如性别偏差、工作经验偏差等,导致合适的员工无法得到提升,错误的人也被提升。晋升,这对激发员工提高企业竞争力的积极性有很大的危害(陈、唐、万、陈,2017)。对于中国企业来说,如何运用正确的评估方法和标准来确保员工的正确晋升是保持企业竞争力的关键因素之一。
The research and development of human resources management in developed countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States have a history of more than 100 years. There has been a relatively mature experience and system for employee promotion. They also have a more mature method for evaluation on traits of staff, such as multi-trait multi-method. And China's enterprises and academia has a history of only 30 years of research on human resources management, there are many bias in the application of staff evaluation methods and standards in Chinese enterprises, such as: gender bias, working experience bias, etc., leading to that appropriate employees fail to get promoted, and wrong people are promoted, which has great harm to stimulate the enthusiasm of employees to improve the competitiveness of enterprises (Chen, Tang, Wan and Chen, 2017). For Chinese enterprises, how to apply correct assessment methods and standards to ensure that right staff can be promoted is one of the key factors to maintain their competitiveness.
1.2 Research aim and objectives研究目标
The research aim of this study is to study on a multi-trait multi-method validation of three determinants of staff promotion in a Chinese company, based on this, it forms the following research objectives.
Research Objective 1: From the three aspects: self-report (CV), leader opinion and interview to analyze problems in the use of evaluation methods in the process of staff promotion in Chinese enterprises;
Research Objective 2: From three aspects: professional knowledge, work performance and cooperation awareness to study the problems of Chinese enterprises the use of evaluation standards in the process of employee promotion;
Research Objective 3: To explore the rationality of using multi-trait multi-method in staff promotion of Chinese enterprises;
Research Objective 4: To recommend on how Chinese enterprises apply evaluation method and evaluation criteria correctly in the process of employee promotion.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1Traits of promoted staff
In Chinese enterprises, the three traits: professional knowledge, work performance and cooperation awareness are usually taken as the evaluation criteria for staff promotion.
According to how much professional knowledge that employees have to determine whether they should be promoted is more common in the contemporary business management, professional knowledge usually refers to the professional and technical knowledge required for the work that staff are engaged in, and other professional knowledge related to the work, such as being familiar with environmental policies and regulations, understanding foreign advanced technology and basic financial knowledge, etc. (Jaiswal and Dhar, 2015). 
Taking staff's cooperation awareness as a standard to determine whether staff can be promoted, including whether staff can comply with the rules and regulations of an enterprise, whether they can coordinate with the superior to deal with work properly, and whether they can live with colleagues friendly, whether they are willing to cooperate with other colleagues to complete the work, whether they have a higher sense of responsibility, altruistic behavior, good communication, organizational loyalty and other characteristics of behavior of an organizational citizenship (Yuan et al., 2016).
According to work performance to determine whether staff can be promoted is based on an enterprise’s system to assess a staff’s ideological conduct; work ability; work attitude, performance, based on the assessment results to find whether the staff has reached the standard to determine whether the staff can be promoted (Araki, Kawaguchi and Onozuka, 2016).
In reality, the standards commonly used by Chinese companies to determine the promotion of employees also include working experience or development potential. Taking working experience as a promotion standard helps to improve employee loyalty, but it goes against motivating employees’ enthusiasm, because the long stayed staff may not be the core staff that the enterprise needs (Pema and Mehay, 2010). Taking development potential as a promotion standard helps to reserve personnel for the long-term development of an enterprise, but staff's potential is difficult to be quantified, in the assessment process, it is prone to bias, resulting in that inappropriate staff has been promoted (Chen, Tang, Wan and Chen, 2017).
2.2 Evaluation methods of staff promotion
In Chinese enterprises, self-report (CV), leader opinion and interview (leaderless group interview) are usually used as evaluation methods for staff promotion.
Self report evaluation method is based on the report of an employee’s for promotion to determine whether the staff can be promoted, the report should include the main achievements of the staff, what methods, measures have been adopted, what effect has been received, and with facts and data to support them (Chen, Tang, Wan and Chen, 2017).
Leader opinion evaluation method is based on the evaluation from leadership on a staff to determine whether the staff can be promoted (Pan, Zhou and Zhou, 2008).
Leaderless group interview refers to that examiners are through assessment on a staff’s dealing with crisis, dealing with emergencies and cooperation with others in a given situation to determine whether the staff meets the job needs (Barge, 1989).
In addition to the above three evaluation methods, there are other evaluation methods used in the promotion of employees, such as psychological testing and assessment center (AC) techniques (Knapp and Mujtaba, 2011). Psychological testing helps to have a deep understanding of an employee's mental quality, work ability and personality characteristics in order to determine whether the employee meets the needs of senior positions, but the reliability and validity of psychological test itself is usually not high, leading to that results of psychological testing are not convincing. Assessment center techniques are considered to be the most effective method of evaluation for senior management, but its operation costs lots of time and money, and it has higher requirements for professional quality of the examiners (Knapp and Mujtaba, 2011), so it is less used in Chinese enterprises.
2.3 Bias
2.3.1 Bias due to gender
Chen, Ge, Lai and Wan’s (2013) studies have shown that women often face a lot of intangible, man-made barriers when women are promoted to the top of an organization. This phenomenon is vividly called the "glass ceiling effect". The results of Wright’s research revealed that compared with men, women have a significant disadvantage in obtaining an authoritative position with supervisory and decision-making power.
Chi, Li (2014) and other researchers have shown that there is a "sticky floor effect" that is different from the "glass ceiling effect" in the promotion of women, that is, women may not differ significantly from men in promotion, but after the promotion, there is only a small increase in wages for women.
Jakobsson, Kotsadam, Syse and Qien’s (2016) research proves that in financial industry, as well as high-tech industries, women in promotion process have encountered more difficulties and discrimination, they get less promotion opportunities, and in education, nurses and other industries, the difficulty of female promotion and discrimination is relatively small, they have relatively fair promotion opportunities.#p#分页标题#e#
2.3.2 Bias due to difference on working experience
Chen, Tang, Wan and Chen’s (2017) research on the promotion of employees in Chinese enterprises points out that Chinese corporate management usually thinks that more working experience represents that an employee has more knowledge, higher skills, and more personal connections, so employees with more working experience usually get more promotion opportunities.
Wang, Huang, Zhang and Rozelle’s (2011) research also indicates that in Chinese enterprises, especially in manufacturing, young staff has more difficulty to be promoted, he believes that the deep-seated causes of the discrimination are related to the traditional Chinese culture and ideas.
Jaiswal, and Dhar’s (2015) research figures that discrimination in different industries related to working experience is reflected differently in staff promotion. In the field of high-tech, marketing and other related areas, there is less experience-related discrimination, and in medical, legal and other fields, there is a greater amount of discrimination associated with work experience.
3.0 Research Methodology 
Multi-trait, multi-method (MTMM) was proposed by Campbell and Fenke, they used two or more methods to evaluate two or more traits, the results obtained can be composed of a multi-trait multi-method matrix (Guinea, Titah and Léger, 2013).
By analyzing MTMM matrix, they determined the convergent validity of different measure methods and the discriminate validity of different traits. Convergent validity refers to the degree of correlation between the results obtained by measuring the same trait in different ways. Discriminate validity refers to the degree to which the observed values are irrelevant when different methods are used to measure different traits (Bowler and Woehr, 2009).
The advantages of MTMM are mainly embodied in the following aspects: first, MTMM can avoid or reduce information deviation or missing caused by a single evaluation method or similar evaluators (Chui, Lee and Tsang, 2016). Second, conclusion acquired through using MTMM is more accurate and scientific than the research conclusion obtained by a single method or the same kind of evaluators (Bowler and Woehr, 2009). Third, it is possible to examine the convergent validity and discriminate validity of multi-method and multi-trait to have a more accurate and effective understanding of the relationship between different measurement indicators, as well as the effectiveness of different evaluation methods (Bowler and Woehr, 2009).
There are two issues that need to be addressed in the research related to promotion. First, it is necessary to examine that what traits determine whether a staff can be promoted and whether the traits are independent rather than interrelated. Second, what methods can be used in order to correctly examine these traits to come to convincing conclusions (Araki, Kawaguchi and Onozuka, 2016). There are many studies on the influencing factors and evaluation methods of employee promotion in the past. However, many of the studies have used a single research method from a single point of view. There are lots of differences in the conclusions given by different researchers, which bring great difficulties to the practical application of results of these studies. One of the reasons for these problems is that each of the individual methods has its own limitations, for example, although self report and leader opinion. are simple and rapid methods, the biggest problem is that it is susceptible to its own subjective factors and random errors, thus the reliability is also low (Bowler and Woehr, 2009). Leaderless group interview is relatively more rigorous, but if employees have the possibility of camouflage, it will make results distorted (Barge, 1989). Therefore, making use of a variety of methods at the same time to explore staff traits, if the same results are acquired, the results will be credible.
Considering from the characteristics of MTMM, it can be a good solution to these problems. First, if the analysis results of MTMM have high convergent validity, it shows that the results have high reliability. Second, if the analysis results of MTMM have high discriminate validity, it shows that the three traits selected: professional knowledge, work performance and cooperation awareness are independent of each other, and they can be used as the determinants of employee promotion, and the selected three methods: self-report (CV), leader opinion and interview (leaderless group interview ) can be very good for statistics and distinction on the three traits, and they are reliable  evaluation method for staff promotion process. Finally, according to factor loading, it can be analyzed which method of evaluation is more suitable for the analysis on a specific trait, so as to provide theoretical support for the application of the evaluation method in the process of staff promotion.
Based on the above reasons, this study will use MTMM to analyze the effectiveness of the three determinants: professional knowledge, work performance and cooperation awareness in staff promotion. The evaluation method adopted includes self-report (CV), leader opinion and interview (leaderless group interview). After data collection, the author will uses professional data entry software EpiData for inputting. Using SPSS 21.0 to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire; with the software LISREL 8.7 to deal with MTMM structural equation analysis, the missing values of the data in the study will be filled with the mean replacement method.
 
References
Araki, S., Kawaguchi, D. & Onozuka, Y. (2016). University prestige, performance evaluation, and promotion: estimating the employer learning model using personnel datasets. Labour Economics, 41(8), 135-148.
Barge, J. K. (1989). Leadership as medium: A leaderless group discussion model. Journal  Communication Quarterly, 37(4), 105-113.
Bowler, M. C. & Woehr, D. J. (2009). Assessment center construct-related validity: Stepping beyond the MTMM matrix. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75(2), 173-182.
Chen, Z., Ge, Y., Lai, H. & Wan, C. (2013). Globalization and gender wage inequality in China. World Development, 44(4), 256-266.
Chen, Z., Tang, J., Wan, J. & Chen, Y. 2017 ().Promotion incentives for local officials and the expansion of urban construction land in China: using the Yangtze River Delta as a case study. Land Use Policy, 63(4), 214-225.
Chi, W. & Li, B. (2014). Trends in China’s gender employment and pay gap: Estimating gender pay gaps with employment selection. Journal of Comparative Economics, 42(3), 708-725.
Chui, W. Y., Lee, S. K. & Tsang, C. K. (2016). Father involvement in Hong Kong: By multitrait-multimethod model and item response theory (IRT). Personality and Individual Differences, 98(8), 333-344.
Guinea, A. O., Titah, R. & Léger, P. M. (2013). Measure for measure: a two study multi-trait multi-method investigation of construct validity in IS research. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 833-844.
Jaiswal, N. K. & Dhar, R. L. (2015). Transformational leadership, innovation climate, creative self-efficacy and employee creativity: a multilevel study. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 51(10), 30-41.
Jakobsson, N., Kotsadam, A., Syse, A. & Øien, H. (2016). Gender bias in public long-term care? A survey experiment among care managers. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 131(11), 126-138.
Knapp, P. R. &Mujtaba, B. G. (2011). Strategies for the design and administration of assessment center technology: a case study for the selection and development of employees. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 2(2), 154-171.  
Pan, J.Q., Zhou, X.Q. & Zhou, X. (2008). The role of leadership between the employees and the organization: a bridge or a ravine? -an empirical study from China. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 11(2), 203-221.
Pema, E. & Mehay, S. (2010). The role of job assignment and human capital endowments in explaining gender differences in job performance and promotion. Labour Economics, 17(6), 998-1009.
Wang, X., Huang, J., Zhang, L. & Rozelle, S. (2011). The rise of migration and the fall of self employment in rural China's labor market. China Economic Review, 22(4), 573-584.
Yuan, J. et al. (2016). Promotion and resignation in employee networks. Physical a: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 444(15), 442-447.
 
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