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指导澳洲教育学termpaper:Principles of Teaching and Learning

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-07-02 10:35:13 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1. How does learning occur in Behaviourism?1。学习是如何在行为主义中发生的?
行为主义者认为行为是学习者对环境刺激的反应。因此,在行为主义中,所有的行为都是通过学习获得的,当有外部刺激时,就会发生学习,并通过行为目标来检查和控制学习效果(Ertmer和Newby,2013年)。考虑到行为主义学习理论在学校教育实践中的应用,要求教师掌握塑造和纠正学生行为的方法,为学生创造一个合适的外部环境,最大化学生的适当行为,消除不适当的行为。
Behaviorists argue that behavior is a response of learners to environmental stimuli. Thus in behaviorism, all actions are acquired through learning, learning occurs when there is external stimuli, and through behavioral objective to check and control learning effect (Ertmer and Newby, 2013). Considering the application of behaviorism learning theory in school education practice, it requires teachers to master the methods of shaping and correcting student behavior, creating a suitable external environment for students, maximizing the appropriate behavior of students and eliminating inappropriate behavior.
 
2. What are three factors that influence learning in Constructivism?影响建构主义学习的三个因素是什么?
The three factors that influence learning in constructivism are: 影响建构主义学习的三个因素是:
The role of students: learning is not the process of simply delivering knowledge from teachers to students, but the process of constructing knowledge by students themselves (Tobin, 1993). Students do not simply passively receive information, but actively construct the meaning of knowledge, this construction can not be replaced by others (Tobin and Tippins, 1993).学生的作用:学习不是简单地将知识从教师传递给学生的过程,而是学生自己构建知识的过程(Tobin,1993年)。学生不只是被动地接受信息,而是积极地建构知识的意义,这种建构不能被其他人取代(Tobin和Tippins,1993)。
The role of teachers: teachers should become those who active help and guide students to construct knowledge, they should stimulate students’ interest in learning, triggering and maintaining students’ learning motivation (Tobin, 1993).教师的作用:教师应该成为那些积极帮助和引导学生建构知识的人,他们应该激发学生的学习兴趣,激发和保持学生的学习动机(Tobin,1993)。
Learning environment: constructivism believes that learners' knowledge is obtained through the help of others, such as the collaboration, communication with other people, the use of necessary information, etc., through the construction of meaning (Tobin, 1993). The ideal learning environment should include four parts: context, collaboration, communication and meaning construction.
 
3. Describe briefly two types of learning OR two classroom activities that are good examples of Cognitivist Learning Theory?简要描述两种类型的学习或两种课堂活动,它们是认知主义学习理论的好例子?
First example is small group teaching: it is learning through discussion to help students to change their plans to elaborate and adjust their learning concepts and values (Tollefson, 2000). Small group teaching guides students to reconstruct their conceptual bases. Students achieve the purpose of probing questions, reflective questions, ‘thought’ questions in this process. Thus learning can takes place in psychological and physical environments.
Second example is practical and professional work. It is laboratory and field work arising from regular practice of different relevant tasks occurring in different experimental situations (Tollefson, 2000). The challenge met in most professions is how to integrate schemata on the basis of experience and schemata according to theories and research findings. These links should be developed at the same time, rather than to learn ‘theory’ first, then after a few years, to ‘apply’ it to practice.
 
4. How would technology be used by a teacher who adhered to the principles of Humanism in his/her teaching?一个坚持人文主义原则的教师在教学中如何使用技术?
Humanism theory believes that teachers should not be a traditional controller, but a "promoter" to perform related tasks in teaching process (Branch, 2015). So teachers who adhere to the principles of humanism will use science and technology to help students to collect learning materials to promote students' learning, they will use science and technology to encourage students to form groups to learn and take the initiative to share their feelings with the group members, they will use science and technology to communicate with students more actively to understand the needs of students and to provide timely help.
 
5. Does knowing learning theories contribute to your teaching and classroom practice?了解学习理论有助于你的教学和课堂实践吗?
Learning theories is very important for my teaching and classroom practice (Ertmer and Newby, 2013). First, it allows me to understand how students get knowledge from different angles. Second, it helps me to according to design and use the appropriate teaching methods, as well as create a suitable learning environment according to different theories and teaching purposes. Third, it makes me know what the role that I play in teaching process and what responsibility I should assume, as well as what roles that students should play in teaching process, how teachers should help with students’ development.
 
References
Branch, W. T. (2015). Teaching professional and humanistic values: Suggestion for a practical and theoretical model. Patient Education and Counseling, 98(2), 162-167.
Ertmer, P. A. and Newby, T. J. (2013). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 26(2), 43-71.
Tobin, K. (1993). The practice of constructivism in science education. Washington, DC: AAAS.
Tobin, K., & Tippins, D. (1993). Constructivism as a referent for teaching and learning. In K. G Tobin (ed.). The Practice of Constructivism in Science Education. Washington, DC: AAAS.
Tollefson, N. (2000). Classroom applications of cognitive theories of motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 12(1), 1-2. 
 
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