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国际贸易壁垒和解决方案

时间:2016-02-06 23:26来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

国际贸易壁垒和解决方案
Barriers and solutions to international trade


介绍

本文概述了当前不同国家的经济体所面临的国际贸易壁垒障碍的例子,和他们的解决方案。国际贸易促进贸易国家高的生活标准,尽管它的各种不良影响,最好的是实践国际贸易,因为它给经济提供了经济效益和社会效益,由此带来全球经济的回升。

这篇文章试图带来光明,一般目前国际贸易壁垒面临最近的例子和解决方案。

国家之间的贸易已经存在了很长一段时间了。亚洲和欧洲之间的贸易标志着这个事实,莫里森(2006年,pp.314 - 2006)检查这两个大陆长期以来从事贸易。他还表明,随着时间的推移,国际贸易已经走了很长的路到体积和国与国之间的贸易模式。莫里森(2006)已经被世界贸易组织(WTO)的数据(2004年,引用了2003年国际贸易统计数据,2002年世界贸易发展)从世贸组织的官方网站,亚洲的全球商品出口中所占的份额逐渐增加,美国北部的份额略有下降和西欧的份额已从2001年下台,但不是多达1990年。莫里森进一步表明,从2000年到2002年,中国的出口和进口增长了30%,今天,中国是世界上最大的交易商之一。因此,我们可能会注意到,国际贸易起着非常重要的作用在世界经济全球化的趋势。

理解“贸易保护主义”

保护主义是“蓄意使用或鼓励限制进口,使相对效率低下的国内生产商竞争成功地与外国生产商或保护和保存这些行业和生产者认为重要的国家利益。”(麦克拉肯,2005)

介绍——INTRODUCION


This essay provides an overview of the barriers to international trade faced by economies today with examples of barriers faced in various countries, and their solutions. International trade promotes high standard of living for trading nations and hence, despite its various ill effects, it is best to practice international trade as it provides economic and social benefits to economies bringing about an upturn in global economy.

This essay attempts to bring to light, the general barriers international trade faces presently and its solutions with recent examples.


国际贸易:介绍——INTERNATIONAL TRADE: AN INTRODUCTION


Trade among countries has existed for a long period now. The trade between Asia and Europe marks this fact as Morrison (2006, pp.314-315) examines that these two continents have engaged in Trade since a long period. He also suggests that with time, international trade has come a long way as far as volume and patterns of trade between nations is concerned. Morrison (2006) has referred to figures by the World Trade Organisation (2004, cited in International Trade Statistics 2003, World Trade Developments 2002) from the official website of the WTO that Asia's share of global merchandise exports has gradually increased, Northern America's share has slightly decreased and Western Europe's share has recovered from a downfall in 2001, but not as much as it did in 1990. Morrison further suggests, from 2000 to 2002, China's exports and imports rose by 30 per cent and today, China is one of the world's largest traders. Therefore, we may note that International trade plays a very essential role in globalization trends in the world economy.


理解“贸易保护主义”——UNDERSTANDING 'TRADE PROTECTIONISM'


Protectionism is ''The deliberate use or encouragement of restrictions on imports to enable relatively inefficient domestic producers to compete successfully with foreign producers, or to protect and preserve those industries and producers considered of critical national interest.'' (McCracken, 2005)

Coughlin et al (1988) state that Protectionist Trade Policies are meant to improve the position of domestic products as compared to its foreign equivalents, and that this may be done through various policies - by increment of the market price of the foreign product or by barring access of foreign products to the domestic market. They explain that protectionist trade policies aim to expand domestic production in the protected industries for the benefit of the owners, suppliers and workers of the protected industry. However this may lead to a downturn in the consumption of protected goods due to either associated rise in its price or consumers start using less of other goods as a result of the decline in outputs and increase in prices. Coughlin et al hence, argue that domestic consumers are said to be impaired as the price of the protected goods keep increasing.

Hence, imposing of tariffs lead to domestic producers' and the government's gain, while domestic consumers' and other domestic producers' loss. These trade policies also affect foreign interests.


“自由贸易”和它的理论——'FREE TRADE' & ITS THEORIES


Free Trade is ''trade between nations that is unhampered by Government constraints such as tariffs, restrictions, and other barriers.'' (Financial Times Limited, 2009)
Theory of Absolute Advantage
Barnat (2005) highlighted certain points from Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations 1776 that explain what this theory talks about. He mentioned that the country's practicing or willing to practice free trade should work towards maximising the efficiency of the goods and products they deal in, and that this theory is based on the assumption that the nation producing a certain good is 'absolutely' better at production of that good or commodity than the rest of its trading partners, hence calling this the 'absolute advantage' of the nation over the other nations.

The theory of Absolute Advantage suggests specialization through free trade as it benefits the consumers if they can afford foreign-made products at a comparatively cheaper price than domestic products. (Warhurst, 2009)
Theory of Comparative Advantage
Barnat (2005, cited in Ricardo, 1817) had postulated that in Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage even if a certain nation is able to produce all its goods at a comparatively lower cost than another country then it benefits the trade of both the countries, based on the comparative costs.

Coughlin et al (1998, cited in Ricardo's Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, 1817) demonstrated that two countries viz. England and Portugal were shown to produce the same two goods wine and cloth and the only production costs were labour costs. It was shown that England was comparatively less efficient to produce both goods as it was comparatively costlier to produce those goods in England. Therefore, it was said in this demonstration that Portugal had an absolute advantage in these two goods. According to this example, labour was the only resource considered to produce these goods when labour is among the many resources used to produce these goods. Also, the production costs of the additional units have been taken to be constant in this demonstration, but unit production as mentioned by Coughlin et al here, is subject to decrease or increase depending on the production.

Elwell (2005) suggests that the gains from trade are mutual despite either nations' absolute advantage or disadvantage in the efficiency with which they produce all tradable goods. The difference in rate of production of one good must be limited for the expansion of another good among countries such that there is a comparative advantage among the two nations such that both benefit efficiently from trade. A nation is not to compete but look at the mutual benefits from trade. Therefore, each country must produce what they do best relatively. Comparative advantage is evident in activities that make use of profuse productive resource. Elwell explains this statement with the help of an example of the U.S. and China. He states that China, with a relative abundance of low skilled labor would find it beneficial to engage in production that requires low skilled labor, in trade. On the other hand, the U.S. specializes in production of goods that require high skilled labor.

Also, the production of goods can be practiced such that a part of the good is produced in one country while another country can deal in producing another part required for the production of the good hence practicing the theory of comparative advantage. For example - American hardware companies send their products to China since it is much more cost effective due to low waged labor in China. This acts as a comparative advantage for both countries.

Due to political motives, various governments still try to obstruct the system of free trade in spite of its acceptance globally, in Henderson's view.


贸易壁垒——BARRIERS TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE


关税壁垒——Tariff Barriers
Tariffs according to Coughlin et al (2009) are taxes imposed on goods entering a country from another country. They suggest that tariff revenues are paid to the government of the country that allows the goods to enter its nation and this revenue is used to finance government services. Therefore, as Sumner et al (2002?) state, Tariffs are among the oldest form of government intervention and are implemented for the purpose of providing revenue to the government and they also provide economic returns to firms and suppliers of resources of the domestic industry that face competition from imported products. Sumner et al further suggest that in 1948, when average tariff on manufactured goods increased by 30 percent in many developed countries, these economies negotiated for the reduction of tariff on manufactured goods under the General Agreement on Tariff Trade (GATT), however, only in the most recent negotiations on this issue in Uruguay, the trade and tariff restrictions were addressed. Tariffs are capable of hampering nation-to-nation trade, or as Sumner et al add, if tariffs set are very high then it can block international trade and hence, act like import bans.



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