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影响管理者和组织环境不确定性的因素分析

时间:2016-03-17 09:39来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:anne 点击:
1. Introduction介绍
 
不确定因素对组织的日常经营和管理决策有着显著的影响。因此,复杂的竞争环境背景下的功能要求企业主应该发挥自己的能力,以保持适当的环境和组织之间的一致性,核心感知一直是一个核心概念,在许多调查的倡议,强调企业和周围的环境之间的整合的特点。(斯默西奇和stubbard,1985)的经营情况导致的动态性和复杂性、不确定性的方式,因此,将继续参与机制的发展,减少吸收,柜台管理的主要任务,或完全避免(Jauch &卡夫,1986)。
外部环境环境对决策和创新有显著的影响。一个爱挑剔的身边环境特性有助于创新环境的不确定性。(2010韦伯和弗吉尼亚)环境的不确定性,减少环境的复杂性和环境变异。情况的复杂多样性,暗示该公司有环境因素相互依存的争辩。
对于企业组织,决策和企业的年度绩效往往遵循外部业务因素和内部驱动力。著名的一般外部环境实体的股息方面的政治影响、经济环境、社会文化环境、技术因素、地理因素等(Chenhall和Morris,1986)另一方面,内部力量包括组织文化、行政管理、人力资源、物理环境委员会,和灵性。(Achrol & Stern,1988)考虑扩大和繁荣的组织,需要经理的能力的认识和预测方法的另一个方面,在内部和外部环境的偏离情况的解决。Uncertain factors have a substantially impact on the organizational day-to-day operations and executive management to making business decisions. Hence, the complex features of competitive environmental context require business owners should exert their abilities to maintain the appropriate consistency between environment and organization.The core perception has been a central notion in many investigated initiatives that emphasis on the characteristics of integration between a firm and its surroundings. (Smircich & Stubbard, 1985) Resulted by business circumstance is dynamism and complexity, the manners of uncertainty, therefore, will continue to be the main task of management involving the development of mechanisms to reduce, absorb, counter, or avoid it completely (Jauch & Kraft, 1986).
The external environmental context has a significant effect on decision making and innovation. A faultfinding side of environmental features contributed to innovation is environmental uncertainty. (Weber &Virginia, 2010) Environmental uncertainty are cut by environmental complexity and environmental variability. circumstance complex allude to the multifariousness and interdependence of environmental factors that corporation have to contended. 
For business organization, a decision making and enterprise’s annual performance are frequently followed by external business factors and internal driving forces. The well-known general external surroundings of an entity dividend by dimensions as political impacts, economic contexts, social-culture conditions, technological factors, and geographic reasons etc. (Chenhall & Morris, 1986) On the other side, the internal forces consists of the organizational culture, board of executive management, human resources, physical environment, and spirituality. (Achrol & Stern, 1988) Another aspect to consider approaches to enlarge and prosper the organization that requires manager’s abilities about forecasting, recognizing and settling the deviated situations in both internal and external circumstance are able to flexible applied in daily management. Accordingly, managers must have better comprehensions and highly passions to engage in a process for evaluating and reacting challenges. 
This essay concludes some unrepresentative factors which are higher possible to considerably affect organizational distributed arrangements and management decisions. Also, the suggestions for lessening negative influences towards to factors of uncertainty are provided for sake of providing efficiency conducting to organizations.
 
2. External Factors Influence Managers and Organizations外部因素对管理者和组织的影响
 
As for external environment, Dess and Beard (1984) have stated the dynamism, heterogeneity, and hostility were three characteristics in it. Another theory considered environmental uncertainty to be the result of changes in market composition and in technology. (Burns & Stalker, 1961) Actually, the external factors of business environment are comprised by uncontrollable forces surroundings of the organization. (Huber et al., 2004) These forces destroy or encourage business in an unintended direction because individual lacks of abilities control against them, but corporation can react and suit to these elements and transformed original threaten towards controllable capabilities so make the organization favor in the external environment.
External factors refers to the amounts of substitute or competitive product of marketers in one industry, their weakness or strength, product or sale, research and development are all feasible to cause changes. As a business manager might not have direct influence on them, but it’s important that manager supervising for market activities, and then process appropriate strategies through organization controllable variables.
Factor of governmental policies is foreseeable approaches to adjust market activities. Through legislation or other compulsory laws to affect business operations. Organization may be restriction by the relevant policy to do their original business, otherwise, governor income and social welfare adjusted by economic policy also brings unforeseen influences.
For the physical environment, it is formed by the available or lacks of nature resources that can fluctuate the production output or input. The cost of business, production cycle, and export quantities for goods are closely followed whether original materials are enough. Managers, obviously, are ought to star at their production materials and price fluctuation to avoid higher cost or shortage for resources.
Additional, social and cultural forces are usually decided by consumers preference or their consumption habit. It is relevant with the organizational structure,  leadership styles, personal dynamics. Many of social reasons accompany a long way to decide people’s purchasing favorably. After begin a investment or create a new market, it requires managers that make fully understand about their aimed population and market context for seizing their favorites styles, acceptable price ranges and special resident habit.
The demographic forces is highly likely about people. For instance, the people in different social position selects how much is acceptable price is various. The elements of age, sex, marital status, occupation, family size etc should be considered wholly before organizations enter a market. Managers should have a sensitive recognition to rapidly position their production position. Though, demography is uncontrollable as people are less ability to control human’s sex, age, marital status in external environment, however, it is not possible to investigate the interventionism market.
Finally, technological changes is full of opportunities and challenges due to it post higher possible to attract new consumers from new kinds of products. For instance, a broken news reported by Keizer (2014), iPhone 6 has launched in a few days that iPhone 6 sets sales record with four millions at the first day. But in last decade, who can imagine today’s function of mobile phone? It seems to illustrate that the new technology have changed products towards a more proficient, intellectual and automated trending. Managers cannot stop the advancement of technology, but make right direction for research and development that make organization not only frighten to new challenge but also a boosting opportunities. 
 
3. Internal Forces Influence Managers and Organizations内部力量影响管理者和组织
 
The internal forces closely linked with human resource in business activities, and the manners in allocating work are mostly based on corporate missions of work processes.(Isaac, n.d.) Moreover, Drucker (1954) indicated that the task environment dividend to specific dimensions that consisted of competitors, consumers, suppliers, regulators, and strategic partners. 
One element has an imperceptible change that lead a continued series alters in an organizations. The employments factors decide how much benefits they can bring for the organizations, also, it is a virtual factor to make sure whether the enterprise’s have abilities to sustainable development. Furthermore, training progress within a company is also one point to arise achievement in the future. An rational process for training staffs are highly likely to achieve a great motivated and loyalty management team. Senior managers are derived from the initial training program. For example, Siemens group selects genius graduated students who has willing to participated into its associate management program for bolstering the future corporation management team. (Siemens, 2014) 
However, the reality situation is usual lower than expectation by limited elements, managers need to be directed contingency their staffs with organization’s culture for making their has great apparent cohesion. From other side, for finding ways to enhance productivity that opulent allowance and wages make workers have positive motion to continue contributing in their position. The management team may have different award policies and leadership styles.
Culture within the organization, crucial factors in determining the position of a easily to be ignored by people, usually plays a significant role in firm. Positive attitude for staffs enhance their initiative and great creativity, stimulate higher potential ability to staffs and make themselves full of confidence. (Kreitner, 2001) Whereas, lower atmosphere in an organization make people are unwilling to work favorably. It usually make business plan are restarted by lower efficiency or more errors. For managers, the ethical and moral testing for elopements is remarkable important for their work. It decided whether the secret assignments won’t be leakage by competitors. Moreover, an ethical issues, sometimes even decide the corporation’s life and salvation.


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