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美国视角下的美国政治 American Perspective,American Politics

时间:2016-05-24 10:05来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网 点击:

“The Ugly American” was written by William Lederer and Eugene Burdick in 1958. This novel is made up of several stories and characters. The author made the "Ugly American" as a title, it is very ironic. We can see from the book, America diplomatic officials is smart seemingly actually stupid; the civilian by sidelined seemingly but is practical and reliable. Who is the ugly American? This dual perspective is actually alluding to America politics and policy. A be hardly worthy of belief is the novel completed in 1958, and in the political, diplomatic and military, it is similar to the Kennedy government in Vietnam experience in 60s. Below, I will grasp the theme of "dual perspective", through the virtual characters in the novel, to analyze the Kennedy administration policy in Vietnam.
1.0 Ambassador Lewis Sears and Vietnam Policy 大使刘易斯西尔斯和越南政策
In the novel, Ambassador Lewis Sears’s ignorance, bad performance at the beginning of the article is very attractive. On the press conference about land ownership, the ambassador showed extreme funny who’s first thought Asian is black. But he is enjoyed by the domestic leaders. In fact, as an America ambassador, that image of him was exaggerated. But one thing is the same with the characters in the novel, which is the pride and ignorance to the third world countries. At that time, USA has become the world's first power after the war; the strategic center of gravity is with European countries and against the Soviet Union. And its attitude to the third world countries, it is vain, arrogant and ignorant. This difference in the dual nature of the reflected in the Geneva conference in 1954, USA participated in the final declaration of the Geneva conference ended the French colonial war for many years in this area. The agreement also stipulated, Vietnam hold free elections in the supervision of the international control commission in 1956, this purpose is unified and led by a single elected government. However, American representatives did not sign the final declaration of the conference. The French retreat, “the Wu Tingyan government refused to hold elections in 1956. This position has been American support” (Roger Hilsman, 1967).
At that time USA fear the North Communist annexed the southern, specially sent military advisory group, the aim is to ensure the existence of Wu Tingyan government. Until 1961 January Kennedy became president, he realized that the seriousness of the Vietnam problem. Especially USA sent mercenaries invade Cuba failed in 1961 April, Kennedy will pay more attention to the Vietnam situation, determined not to let such a shame in Vietnam to repeat. Kennedy believed that, “once a country western backed by Communist break, other countries in the region will follow the collapse” (Arthur M, 1967). Therefore, he took office soon finalize some critical about the future American how involvement in Vietnam decisions. The maintenance of political reputation anxiety, for American prestige "credibility" attention and eager to reverse bad luck psychological, stimulate the Kennedy government to take tough Vietnam policy.
2.0 Colvin’s milk, Tom's eggs and "strategic village" 科尔文的牛奶,汤姆的鸡蛋和“战略村”
In the novel, civilians Colvin and Tom think the civilians need not large infrastructure, but "to make the country's egg production doubled" (William Lederer, P.154). This is the same as Kennedy government. The Kennedy government said: only when the Wu Tingyan regime was able to offer people's livelihood better than the Communist, people will stand on side of American. Specific measures include the land reform, rural loans, the development of education and health care etc... The Kennedy government pursue “one hand is sword, other hand is olive branch”. This policy is in line with the essence of human society. It has changed the foreign style from Truman to Eisenhower governments; it is a great political strategy. We can also see, and then USA government in a diplomatic shift, it was on the basis of this Kennedy's idea.
3.0 Ambassador Gilbert Mike White and the Wu Tingyan government 大使迈克·吉尔伯特怀特和吴婷闫政府
In the novel, Ambassador Gilbert Mike White is unlike his incompetent predecessors, he can be a qualified ambassador. A fly in the ointment is, he is very trust his servant, but the servant is a communist spy and betrayed him. Similarly, the "strategic village" as a political plan is very good, “but it has a drawback that the construction speed is very slow” (Gabriel Kolko, 1985). The Kennedy government has not enough patience. More deadly is, the Kennedy government trusting the wrong people. Wu Tingyan is happy to this plan and with rocket speed promotion, on one hand he is to strive for the Kennedy government assistance; on the other hand, he can control the rural population. To achieve control of the rural population, the fundamental is difference between the Wu Tingyan regime and the USA intentions. Because of record and assistance, there are also because of pressure and fear, “many officials in order to reach the target, they often made false figures” (Anthony sbort, 1989), which deviates from Kennedy's entire political layout. Later, Kerrey Ford, President Johnson's defense secretary, he said America failed in Vietnam, because “American support of Wu Tingyan government which is corruption and degeneration infighting, the morale of the troops was left without fighting, it was a feckless government”(James J, 1996).
4.0 Father Finian and the Communism 父亲Finian和共产主义
In the novel, the priest Finny finds "communism and religious thought". He found that: "the Communists copy religious rituals, beliefs, dedication, passion and enthusiasm". Because of the importance of communism and religion "emphasis on training, require observant and conventional spirit standards, must go beyond the fact to recognize a larger truth" (William Lederer, P. 39). Finian really put the characteristics of Communist ideology is very profound. As a priest, this should be divorced from politics, concentrate on the sermon. However, Finian believes that communism is the "devil's face, it is on the earth to test human morality". So he would "stand the test, even if he had to single-handed dry" (William Lederer, P. 40).
I can't go to the demonstration of communism and Christianity "paradise" any resemblance; also can not to study the Bible said, "God will not impose its will in everyone" is what mean. I only know that, USA constitution protected religious freedom as the basic human rights. If communism is a religious word, the priest Finny interfering in other people's freedom of religious belief; if communism is not a religion of words, then, lies in the dual perspective of the priest Finny, he proclaimed the religious side to do national rivalries. Ideological differences only on the surface, power competition are the essence. If American confident that their country system is perfect, so there is no need to emphasize the issue of ideology. Only among the national power, the concept of convergence close will make the expected benefits type structure is also convergent, and the convergence will lead to more intense power struggle. This is the fundamental reason about confrontation between America and Soviet Union. The Kennedy government advocated "the Communist threat" on the surface, in fact, in his eyes, there are only two kinds of state: the favorable and unfavorable American national interests.
American intention is obvious dual perspective in Vietnam's political. The Kennedy government wants to Vietnam as a model democracy places in Asia, at the same time, they also propped up the autocratic government against the Soviet Union; Kennedy government wants to depends on economic aid to Vietnam so that people's trust in themselves, and at the same time, they were anxious for success. Objectively speaking, this dual perspective of the Kennedy government is a political means in the interest of the USA. Is it “ugly”? Dual perspective of people also has dual answer.

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