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英国assignment范文:集体谈判与联合协商实践的比较

时间:2016-12-17 09:16来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
随着组织社会化程度的不断提高,一个组织面临的是复杂的和竞争的经营环境。维持一个组织的长期发展,这是不足以完全依靠管理层的决策。因此,现代学者和企业越来越重视如何发挥智慧和员工的积极性,让员工有机会参与决策。他们提出了一系列的理论和法规,如员工的发言权,集体谈判,联合协商等理论。本文将比较和对比的做法,集体谈判和联合协商的基础上员工的语音框架和理论,以帮助了解这两个员工影响管理决策。
 
1.0 Introduction 简介
With the increasing degree of socialization of organizations, the operating environment that an organization faces is complex and competitive (Kwon, Farndale and Park, 2016). To maintain the long-term development of an organization, it is not enough to rely solely on management's decision-making (Constantin and Baias, 2015). Therefore, modern scholars and enterprises pay more and more attention to how to exert the wisdom and initiative of employees’ and give employees the opportunity to participate in decision-making (Venkataramani et al., 2016). They propose a series of theories and regulations, such as the theory of employee voice, collective bargaining, joint consultation and so on. This essay will compare and contrast the practices of collective bargaining and joint consultation based on employee voice frameworks and theory to understand how these two help employees to influence management decision making.
 
2.0 Body 正文
 
2.1 Employee voice
Venkataramani et al. (2016) define employee voice as employees’ expression of work-related opinions, information and views based on the purpose of collaboration. Employee voice includes views expressed when employees are not satisfied with their work and constructive views under normal circumstances on improving performance of an organization.
Behavior of employee voice is rather complicated, and the existing researches mainly study it from the following three dimensions.
According to the content of employee voice, Constantin and Baias (2015) divide employee voice into prohibitive voice and promotive voice. Prohibitive voice proposed to address the existing problems to improve them, promotive voice refers to new working paradigms put forward by employees to challenge the current situation.
According to the division of ways of employee voice, Kwon, Farndale and Park (2016) divide employee voice into considerate voice and aggressive voice. Considerate voice will take into account employees’ own interests and the interests of the organization, and aggressive voice is more consideration of personal interests.
According to the motive, Venkataramani et al. (2016) divide employee voice into defensive voice and acquiescent voice, prosocial voice. Defensive voice refers to the recommendations put forward actively for self-protection, which may not be beneficial to the organization. Acquiescent employee voice is a negative expression of their views. Prosocial voice is a proactive expression of staff’s suggestions which are profitable for the organization.
 
2.2 Compare and Contrast of Collective Bargaining and Joint Consultation
2.2.1 Definition
Collective bargaining is defined as that in collective bargaining, it takes an employer, some employers or several employer organizations as a party, taking a or several workers' organizations as the other party to conduct the negotiation based on the following purposes: determining working conditions and conditions of employment; adjusting the relationship between employers and workers; adjusting the relationship between employer organizations and worker organizations  (Berg, Kossek, Baird and Block, 2013). 
Joint consultation is the practice that employees' representatives and representatives of enterprises are on the basis of laws to negotiate equally on matters such as wage distribution systems, forms of wage distribution, income levels and enterprise management to sign wage agreements (Okpu, and Jaja, 2014).
 
2.2.2 Similarities
The similarities between collective bargaining and joint consultation include that firstly, purposes of both are to resolve the contradiction between employees and enterprises to coordinate labor relations, both of them give employees the right and opportunity to influence enterprises’ decision-making (Jimeno and Thomas, 2013; Holland, Pyman, Cooper and Teicher, 2009). Secondly, there is a low degree of government intervention in the implementation process and results of the two systems, only when the labor disputes involve the public domain, a government will intervene (Holland, Pyman, Cooper and Teicher, 2009; Berg, Kossek, Baird and Block, 2013). Finally, both of them contribute to the coordination of labor relations, workers are given more opportunities to participate in the management of an enterprise, which helps to stimulate the enthusiasm and creativity of laborers to improve labor efficiency, providing a fundamental guarantee for improving enterprise productivity, economic efficiency (Jimeno and Thomas, 2013; Okpu and Jaja, 2014).
 
2.2.3 Differences
Collective bargaining differs from joint consultation mainly in the following four aspects. First is people involved. Representatives of workers in joint consultation are usually generated through democratic elections (Okpu and Jaja, 2014), while workers' representatives of collective bargaining are usually selected by trade union organizations. Second is about the content of discussion(Berg, Kossek, Baird and Block, 2013). Joint consultation discusses content of a more large range (Holland, Pyman, Cooper and Teicher, 2009). It can often include enterprise development strategies, business decisions, and content related to employee compensation, working hours, benefits, and so on. The content of collective bargaining is usually limited to content related to staff salaries, working hours, benefits, and so on (Jimeno and Thomas, 2013). Finally, the dispute resolutions of the two are different. In the process of joint consultation, the difference between employers and employees will be settled through negotiation, while the dispute in collective bargaining can lead to strikes, shutdowns, downtime and other fierce ways. Finally, considering from the characteristics of communication, joint consultation is not a negotiation decision-making process, but a consultation process (Okpu and Jaja, 2014). It is more emphasis on non-confrontation communication and consultation. Under this mechanism, the labor relations emphasize cooperation rather than confrontation. The opposition of the two sides in economic interests is replaced or weakened by the unity, and enterprises develop becomes the highest interests of both sides. Joint consultation provides a common platform for both employers and employers to formally or informally discuss issues commonly concerned to exchange information and explore ways to solve problems in an organized framework. While in collective bargaining, the two parties are in a relevant legal framework to fight with each other about the organization they work in, staff motivation and participation, as well as the settlement of disputes and a series of work-related contents to maximize their own interests (Jimeno and Thomas, 2013). The core of the bargaining is the game for interests.
Judging from the above analysis, collective bargaining has the characteristics of promotive voice, aggressive voice and the characteristics of defensive voice. While joint consultation has the characteristics of  prohibitive voice, considerate voice and prosocial voice.
 
3.0 Conclusion 结论
 
Collective bargaining and joint consultation embodies two kinds of different views and approaches on employees' influence on enterprise decision-making. Both systems have their advantages and disadvantages, rational use of these two systems has a positive effect on improving labor relations and encouraging employees to participate in enterprise management.
 


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