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时间:2017-04-21 09:11来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (2005) defines training as a process of learning the skills that you need to do a job. Training is used to prepare employees for advancement in their jobs where their capacities can be utilized to the fullest extent possible. National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) (1992) stated that rather than select high-potential first and then develop them, organizations will be more successful if they develop first, and then select.
Training has been a subject of study in the management and education literature for a long time. Employee training and development (human resource development) has emerged as a major educational enterprise in the past three decades or so because of demand in the workplace for employee, at all levels, to improve performance in their present jobs, to acquire skill and knowledge to do new jobs, and to continue their career progress in a changing world of work. Employer organizations depend directly on the competence and productivity of their work force for survival in the challenge economic competition of the world place. Technological change, economic change, demographic change, and other forces continually create new needs for learning by the work force (Craig,1987).
Training is an integral part of any organization. There are a few advantages of training been said by the authors. There are:
increases worker productivity by improving their ability to do their current job.
increases worker job satisfaction by decrease of turnover rate because employer offer on-going training to his workforce so that the employee has an ability to do their current job.
keeps workers up to date because training will expose them to the current technology and skills needed to deal with it.
helps to motivate workers up to date because training will expose them to the current technology and skills needed to deal with it.
helps to motivate workers because in some organizations they will reward their employees after their employees attended the training courses (Aminuddin, 2000).
Chi and Tao (2003) stated that training is one of the most important strategies for organization to help employees gain proper knowledge and skill to meet the environmental challenges. Training is the process that can only be mastered through experience and practices. They also add that continuous improvement is important to the training process as it is to the more tangible and visible areas of manufacturing and administration. The researcher also content that training is a simply an additional avenue for enhancing the total financing return on investment rather than detracting from the importance of employee training program. It can provide training manager with the kind of credibility essential to success.
Training is an important and costly event in the array of programs included in a company's human resource department (Golnaz & Peggy, 1995). in the past research Westhead (1998), state that the training and education support is now one of the leading measures to increase the skill level of workforce, to ensure stronger long term national economic performance, and to improve employee motivation (Heyes & Stuart, 1995).
Training is important to organization. An informal training like train-the-trainer approach can be effective. According to Sommella (2009), an individu or small group of reliable instructors and reward them with an off-site training; they in turn will be the facilitators for the site-based staff development. this option will build the self-esteem and confidence of staff and increase the organization's collegial power. Educators are learners searching for the constant prospect of improvement, but those opportunities must have focus to be meaningful. Professional development must reach beyond the transfer of classroom skills and knowledge and move toward a systematic and reflective practice. Most districts have the resources from within to communicate, inspire, and motivate other staff.
2.4.4 Career Development
Career development strategies are an integral component of talent management; the recruitment, development, and retention of human resources. Career development processes may affect employee engagement, retention, and succession strategies (Beever, 2008). Employees will stay longer and perform better if the organization strives to give them career development opportunities (Tarasco & Damato, 2006).
Career development focuses on the enhancement of human resources. Current literature has suggested that skilled employees are fast becoming the insufficient source, and career development processes can improve employee recruitment and maintenance efforts (Rothwell, 2005).
Career management strategies are most effective when integrated with other priorities, such as strategic planning and succession planning (Beever, 2008). A properly selected, well-trained, and heavily committed workforce makes it easy to build a succession planning programs that taps into internal talent (Rothwell et al.,2005).
In the past, the term 'career' is one that has usually been applied to managerial and professional workers. Many organizations responded to the career aspirations such employees through HRP policies and processes such as succession planning, secondment, 'fast-track' development for identified 'high flyers' and a vast array of personal and management development activities (Bratton & Gold, 1999).
While organizations were structured into a number of hierarchical levels and grades, such employees could look forward to a path of promotion that signified the development of their careers. Of course, along the way, many employees might encounter blocks to their careers such as lack of opportunities and support, and for women, cultural and structural prejudices to career progress referred to as the 'glass ceiling' (Davidson and Cooper, 1992).
During the 1980's, with the growing influence of ideas relating to a people-oriented human resource management (HRM), reflecting the unitarist perspective on the employment relationship of a common interest between the organization and employees, many organizations began to extend career development activities to a wider range of employees.
We might question whether the idea of a career can be extended to a larger number of employees. After all, not everyone can be 'promoted' through the organization hierarchy even if they had the potential to be so. This is a view that is often presented to justify the status quo and to limit the resources devoted to employee development.
However, it is a view based on a traditional concept of career. As many organizations have discovered, continuous personal development is possible among large groups of employees if limiting factors that prevent the exposure of employees to new opportunities and experiences for development can be removed. Limiting factors may term 'career' is extended to apply not only to movement through pre-defined stages such as those found in professions or organization hierarchies, but also to personal growth and development through the employees' interaction with their work environment. This view matches Hirsh's (1990, p.18) developing potential emergent model of succession planning where'in a personal-based approach, posts can be considered as ephemeral and may be designed around people.
A review of the literature also suggested that career development processes can improve employee moral and job satisfaction, leading to improved performance. Further, improved engagement may facilitate succession efforts employees are motivated to develop their skills in order to be promoted within the organization. Common barriers to successful career development programs include lack of organization leadership, lack of resources and a short-term version (Cambron, 2001).
Career development also affects employee engagement. Expectations have changed; employees no longer view training and development as a benefit, but rather an expectation (Boomer, 2008). Barbara Bowes (2008), a vice president with Legacy Partners, an executive recruitment organization, contended that career development is a vital organization strategy that facilitates internal promotion and succession planning by improving employee productivity and retention.
Larry Cambron (2001), the president of Asia operations of Drake Beam and Morin, stated that a concerted focus on employee career development by organizations leads to reduce turn-over, improved motivation, increased satisfaction, and more effective succession planning. Effective career development strategies help organizations manage one of the most integral assets: their people. To facilitate career management, Drake Beam & Morin (as cited in Cambron, 2001) outlined the following practices:

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