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英国assignment范文:组织价值链 Value Chains in Organisations

时间:2017-06-02 08:53来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
本文是英国留学生assignment范文,主要内容是讲述组织可以增加价值与它的成功和价值链的相关概念。
在这项工作中,我将展示一个组织可以增加价值与它的成功和价值链的概念可以用来评估组织增加价值和发展未来的战略。
价值链是一个传统的把阶段的业务流程的方式。价值链强调运营经理参与过程的各个方面的重要性,从供应商的权利槽客户。随着价值链的方法,功能边界被忽视,在许多组织现在接受的运营经理必须控制整个过程,从购买商品和服务的最后阶段,以满足客户。市场营销、会计、人力资源并没有出现在价值链中,但运营经理必须有兴趣,并参与这些内部职能的组织。
 
Introduction 简介
In this assignment I'm going to show that an organisation can add value with its success and how the concept of a Value Chain can be used to asses where organisations add value and develop future strategy.
 
According to Wright (2004), Value Chain is a traditional manner of departmentalising stages of the business process. The value chain highlights the importance of the operational manager being involved in all aspects of the process, from suppliers right trough the customer. With the value chain approach functional boundaries are ignored and in many organisations its now accepted that the operations manager has to control the whole process from buying in goods and services to the final stage of satisfying the customer. Marketing, accounting, human resources are not showing up in the value chain, but the operational manager has to be interesting and to be involved in these internal functions of the organisation as well. (Wright and Race 2004)
 
Information technology is changing the way companies operates.
 
According to Porter (1985), cost leadership and product differentiation can be pursued simultaneously only under rare conditions.
 
If organisations are to achieve competitive advantage by delivering value to customers, managers need to understand which activities the undertake are especially important in creating that value and which are not (Johnson et all 2008) . The value chain concept is important to understand this describing the categories of activities within and around an organisation, which together create a product or service". The concept was developed by Michael Porter with his book "competitive advantage 1985" where the idea of value chain is based on the processe view of organisations, the idea of seeing a manufacturing or service organisation as system, made up of subsystems each with inputs, transformation process and outputs which involve the acquisition and consumption of resources (money, equipment, labour, land, buildings, management and administration).
 
The primary value chain activities are:
 
Logistics/ Inbound:the distribution of manufacturing after the raw materials are received and warehoused.
Operations: the transformation process of inputs into services and finish products.
Logistics/ Outbound: The warehousing and distribution of the finished goods.
Marketing and sales: Placing the product on the market generating sales reaching the right people interested to buy it
Service: The tool used to offer the product on the market and the service offered after the product is sold (customer service)
This Primary Activities are supported by:
 
The infrastructure of the firm: organisational structure, control system, company culture etc.
Human resource management: employee recruiting, hiring, training, development and compensation.
Technology development: technologies to support the value chain activity
Procurement: purchasing input such as materials, supplies, and equipments. 
"The firm's margin or profit then depends on its effectiveness in performing these activities efficiently, so that the amount that the customer is willing to pay for the products exceeds the cost of the activities in the value chain. It is in these activities that a firm has the opportunity to generate superior value. A competitive advantage may be achieved by reconfiguring the value chain to provide lower cost or better differentiation". 
 
External efficiency is measured by customer satisfaction and by market share. To achieve customer satisfaction the company requires, and is depends on, the timely received goods and its services to specification by external suppliers. Is very important to have a good communication, and teamwork between suppliers at one end, and the customer at the other end of the value chain. (Wright and Race 2004)
 
Cost advantage and Value Chain
A firm maybe create a cost advantage either by reducing the cost of individual value chain activities, or by reconfiguring the value chain. Once the value chain is defined, a cost analysis can be performed by assessing the costs of the value chain activities. The cost obtained from the accounting report may need to be modified in order to allocate them properly to the value creating activity.
 
Porter identified 10 cost drivers realting to the value chain activities:
 
Economies of scale
Learning
Capacity utilisation
Linkages among activities
Interrelationships among business units
Degree of vertical integration
Timing of market entry
Firm's policy of cost or differentiation
Geographic location
Institutional factors (regulation, union activity, taxes etc.)
A firm develops a cost advantage by controlling these drivers better than do the competition.
 
A cost advantage also can be pursued by reconfiguring the value chain. Reconfiguration means structural changes such a new production process, new distribution channels, or a different sales approach. For example FedEx structurally redefined express freight service by acquiring its own planes and implementing a hub and spoke system. 
 
Differentiation and Value Chain
A differentiation advantage can arise from any part of the value chain. For example procurements of inputs that are unique and widely available for competitors can create differentiation, as can distributor channels that offers high service levels. A differentiation advantage may be achieved by changing individual value chan activities to increase uniqueness in the final product, or by reconfiguring the value chain.
 
Porter identified several drivers of uniqueness:
 
Policies and decision
Linkages among activities
Timing
Location
Interrelationships
Learning
Integration
Scale (eg better service as a result of large scale)
Institutional factors
Most of these also serve a cost drivers. There are several ways which a firm can reconfigure its value chain in order to create uniqueness. 
 
Technologies and the Value Chain
The changes in technologies can impact the competitive advantage changing and making possible new configuration of value chain. Many technologies are used in both primary value activities and support activities:
 
Inbound Logistic Technologies
Transportation
Material handling
Material storage
Communication
Testing
Information systems
Operations Technologies
Process
Materials
Machine tools
Material handling
Packaging
Maintenance
Testing
Building design & operation
Information systems
Outbound Logistics Technologies
Transportation
Material handling
Packaging
Communications
Information systems
Service Technologies
Testing
Communications
Information systems
In order to compare value chain activities and how can be added value to a company, I chosen few international hotel chain:
 
Hilton Worldwide
Is the leading global hospitality company, spanning the lodging sector from luxurious full-service hotels and resorts to extended-stay suites and mid-priced hotels. For over 90 years Hilton has been offering business and leisure travellers the finest in accommodations, service, amenities and value. Company dedicated for the tradition of providing exceptional guest experience across its global brands distributed over a total of more than 3400 hotels in 79 countries. The company manages the world-class guest reward program called Hilton Honours®, innovative technologies to enhance the guest experience. 
Marriott international
Marriott's brands are leading in customer satisfaction and owner and franchisee preferences. Exceptional amenities. Attentive guest guest care. In-depth local knowledge set industy standards around the world.
 
Marriott International has become the world's leading lodging company, not only through its deiverse portfolio of global brands, but also by training and engaging the best employees (300.000) to delivery the best service. 
 
As we can see, two very big hospitality company operating worldwide are constantly trying to add value. In the service industry and especially in the hotel industry, the value is added and created from the people inputs of time, knowledge, equipments and systems to serve the hotel guests and customers. Customers in these companies can be also employees from the same organisation. The more value is created, the more people will be ready to pay the price for the service or product and the more they will keep on buying from the same company.


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