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时间:2017-10-11 14:56来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
As long as production goes, care should be taken to avoid unevenness of flow of the process. This requires every material, tool, equipment and labour to be readily available at the respective work sta
As long as production goes, care should be taken to avoid unevenness of flow of the process. This requires every material, tool, equipment and labour to be readily available at the respective work station to avoid interruption. Defect to be nipped in the bud. This means that if the job on the assembly line or at a work center is found to be defective, the same cannot be passed to the next work station/center without being rectified of the defect. This gives two-fold advantage; first, all the output that comes out will be defect free and secondly, there is no need to invest on a quality assurance system.
Line stopping - Where, on an assembly line, if any defect is noticed by the operator[s], he is given discretion to stop the assembly line by means of a switch and hold it till the defect is rectified. Continuous improvement is based on standardization of operations/tasks and employee empowerment. Standardization of operations facilitates fixing benchmarks for employees and thereby provides for comparison of performance against benchmarks. Once they are met by the employees, the benchmarks will be revised. This way, performance and efficiency keep increasing year by year, leading to ever increasing performance and productivity.
Visual control system: This system alarms the workers of any lapse or defect that my arise during the production process. When the system identifies a defect, it alarms the workers through visual devices. Using fool-proofed technology: The Toyotan philosophy calls for using equipment of proven technology to ensure a steady and uninterrupted flow of the process as well as to get the output of the desired quality.
Leaders should be developed from among the employees who relish the philosophy, understand it thoroughly and are willing to share it with others. Exceptional personnel and teams who imbibe and nurture the aspirations of the company should be developed. Network partners and suppliers by sharing expertise should be honored and challenging assignments should be given to help them improve.
A personal involvement in a situation provides a thorough understanding of an issue. Decision making shall be done coolly through consensus, taking into consideration all possible options. Implementation shall be done quickly. This is based on the belief that collective wisdom is always superior to the individual's. Creating an environment in the organization so, that every employee indulges in learning things and improves performance on a sustained basis. This makes the whole organization, a "learning organization."
How Toyota Is Comparable To And Discernible From Ford
Production Philosophy
Toyota - Relies on piece-meal style of production, i.e., produces only when there is pull from the customer
Ford - Whereas Ford manufactured in large scale to create stock based on estimated demand
Nature of work
Toyota - Designed the work so, that workers had to be multi- skilled to perform complex tasks.
Ford - Over simplified complex operations such that workers needed low level skills
Toyota - Though was influenced by the writings of Edwards Deming and Henry Ford, was embarrassed on eye-witnessing the assembly lines of Ford Motors' facilities in Michigan.
Ford - Could demonstrate business success through the policy of standardization of products, components, equipment, process and control.
Pace of output
Toyota production system was continual and produced in small quantities as each customer merited. No pile up of finished goods.
Ford - Held the policy of turning over at uniform pace to create huge pile up of stocks.
Set up time & cost
Toyota - Fundamentally designed for continual flow meriting frequent changeovers and set ups, but this could be offset by the extra costs of blocking capital in the form of huge pile up of stocks, characteristic of Ford Motors.
Ford - As the scheduling is done for continuous run, changeovers are less frequent and so, low set up time and cost.
Workers' discretion
Toyota - Allowed certain amount of discretion to workers on the assembly line such as empowering them to inspect the job for defects and to stall the flow on the assembly line to rectify the defect then and there and then let it go to the next work station to ensure zero defect situation and to eliminate the need of rework division.
Ford - Eliminated the scope for workers' discretion to be used at the work place since each worker on the assembly line had to perform only a single task and the next task had to be done by the next worker. Workers had no authority to stop the flow of work as such, an incidence of defect is allowed to pass till the end of the process and the defective item is sent to rework division.
Process design
Toyota - Focused on three criteria while designing its production system, i.e., overburden, inconsistency, and waste. These words are simple, but have far reaching effects. The last criterion is pivotal for the success of the company. The seven wastes concept indicates a treat amount of insight of the Toyotans and it is unique of Toyota. But, ironically, Toyotan inspiration is rooted in the writings of Edward Deming, who happens to be the American. The fun lies in the fact that American automobile industry did not pay heed to Deming's philosophy, but non-Americans exhibited faith in it.
Ford - Bureaucratized as far as administration/control is concerned. All employees have to observe scalar chain and abide by the rules and procedures
Long-term perspective in planning
Toyota & Ford - Both companies look into far future.
Developing people
Toyota - Promotes development of exceptional individuals and teams.
Ford - Does not focus on developing experts as it has over simplified the tasks, rather, workers might gain efficiency as they do the single task repeatedly.
Pay and incentives
Toyota - Provides ample scope for personnel to grow as it nurtures innovation, employee participation and so on.
Ford - The policy is to pay and provide incentives based on results.
Problem solving
Toyota - Employees are nurtured in such a culture that they address a problem through the root cause instead of taking a perfunctory look.
Ford - Employees are not trained along making deeper efforts in addressing problems. They used to leave the problem at perfunctory levels.
Summary 总结
The world has witnessed a constant transformation as regards the automobile production/operations philosophy. The Ford's mass production (produce to stock) philosophy received ample appreciation and was convicted to be the right path by most other manufacturers (1914). This has been evidenced by the way the Big Three, (Ford Motors, General Motors and Chrysler) flourished during early and mid 20th century. But the onset of Toyota production system, which is based on the philosophy of "lean manufacturing", started sending tremors into the well complacent American automobile industry's regime. The principle of Toyota Motor Company (TMC) to eliminate wastes and subsequent TMC's success attracted other manufacturers who tried to copy, but in vain. They could not imitate the whole TMC's philosophy as it is.

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