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指导英国assignment:Global production network

论文价格: 免费 时间:2018-09-25 16:31:04 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
导读:这是一篇英国assignment范文,讨论了全球生产网络。如今,以物流业和金融业为主的生产性服务业网络成为资本运动的新载体,并与生产网络嵌套形成跨国公司主导的全球生产网络,它将更多领域纳入资本主义经济网络体系之内。由全球生产网络构成可以发现,当前以金融资本为主导形态的资本运动网络之中,生产网络与服务网络是相互嵌套的整体。生产网络、商品资本网络以及金融网络既相互区隔,又有相互嵌套与重叠之处。
 
By means of information technology, network support, feasibility, diversification of capital movement to the networking, virtualization and internationalization direction, heterogeneous network combination of capital formation, and deduce with the service capital network new organization form of contemporary capitalist countries capital accumulation, multinational companies dominate the global production networks, it will be more areas into the capitalist economy within a network system. This spatial network structure reorganizes the regional division of labor and functions in different countries. It not only redraws the new landscape of labor under the conditions of network economy, but also promotes the evolution of contemporary capital relations.
 
在现代信息技术、网络技术支持下,资本运动正朝着多元化、网络化、虚拟化和国际化方向发展。构网络资本形成相结合,推导出服务资本网络新组织形式的当代资本主义国家资本积累,跨国公司在全球生产网络中占主导地位,它将更多地区纳入网络系统内的资本主义经济。 这种空间网络结构重新组织了不同国家的区域分工和职能。它不仅在网络经济条件下重新绘制了新的劳动力格局,而且促进了当代资本关系的演变。
 
Capital has never stopped moving since its emergence. The basic form of capital keeps becoming independent and diversified in the process of movement, and then develops towards the direction of network, virtualization and internationalization, forming the network combination of heterogeneous capital. With the help of the network technology support, the nature of capital movement of increasingly, and breakthrough of the industry, the boundaries between country and market, expanding its range of movement, and transform its movement under the profit-driven carrier, in the contemporary, financial industry and logistics industry as the main content of the producer services network become a new carrier, capital movement and production network nested form the new organization form of the contemporary capital accumulation, multinational companies dominate the global production networks, it will be more areas into the capitalist economy within a network system. The globalization and networking of capital relations highlights the hegemony logic of capital movement and further accelerates the formation and expansion of asymmetric global production network.
 
资本自出现以来从未停止过。资本的基本形式在运动过程中不断变得独立和多样化,然后朝着网络,虚拟化和国际化的方向发展,形成异质资本的网络组合。在网络技术支持的帮助下,资本流动的性质日益增加,行业的突破,国家与市场的界限,扩大其运动范围,并在利益驱动的载体下转变其运动,在当代,金融业和物流业作为生产者服务网络的主要内容成为新的载体,资本运动和生产网络嵌套形成了当代资本积累的新组织形式,跨国公司主导全球生产网络,它将更多地区进入网络系统内的资本主义经济。资本关系的全球化和网络化凸显了资本运动的霸权逻辑,进一步加速了不对称全球生产网络的形成和扩张。
 
Capital is the product of high development of commodity economy. In the late 15th century and the early 16th century, when world trade and world market came into being, commodity economy began to transform into capitalist economy. Logically, the internal contradictions of goods drive the creation of money, and the value added of money announces the birth of capital. Historically, capital has developed from the production and circulation of commodities, but only when labor became a commodity under the capitalist mode of production in which commodity production and circulation were dominant can money be converted into capital. In practice, the commercial sector is highly valued for the reason of pursuing money to realize primitive accumulation of capital. In theory, at this time, the research on capital dominated the theoretical field, and more attention was paid to the circulation field. The mercantilist theory, with the commercial sector or commercial capital as the research object, believed that the value and wealth came from the circulation field, and the accumulation of national wealth was also realized through the circulation field. Therefore, business capital became the earliest capital form studied in history. Commercial capital is also the starting point and initial form of capital movement in theory. The mercantilist scholars started the study of capital and preliminarily clarified the nature of capital's pursuit of profit. The nature of this capital has not changed even today.
 
With the establishment of capitalist mode of production in Britain, industrial production has gradually occupied a dominant position in the social economy, and industrial capital form has become the dominant mode of capitalist economy. To industrial capital as the research object of the British classical political economists, such as William match first, Adam Smith, David li jia figure and other scholars, the research object from circulation in the field of production, the opinion that wealth comes from industrial production department, the production is the source of wealth accumulation. The definition of capital in the classical political economy of Britain is either multiple or historical, but they seize the typical form of capital in the industrial age -- industrial capital, take it as the research object, and seize the essence of capital from the source of surplus value, which is their significant historical contribution to capital research.
 
In the industrial era, besides the dominant industrial capital, the agricultural capital studied by French physiocratic school became another important form of capital. They believe that only the agricultural sector can truly create social wealth and that land is the only source of wealth. Research on the agricultural sector has enriched the form of capital and expanded the field of capital movement.
 
On the basis of previous studies, Marx conducted systematic and scientific research on capital. With the development of social productivity and the progress of technology, there is no doubt that the profit-seeking nature of capital is revealed, and the carrier of capital is constantly enriched, transferred and transformed along with the evolution of the leading industry of economic activities. It is precisely because Marx accurately grasped the essence and characteristics of capital movement that he studied capital from the perspectives of philosophy, economics and sociology. The concept and explanation of "capital" given here is the most thorough. Here, Marx takes industrial capital as the research object, unifies monetary capital, production capital and commodity capital into the circulation and turnover process of capital, investigates in detail how capital multiplies in the movement, and further analyzes the capital relationship.
 
The essence of capital lies in movement. Driven by profits, capital never stops moving. Under the pressure of capital accumulation expansion, capitalist countries are constantly looking for new economic growth points and capital growth points. Since the 1970 s, in order to increasingly in the way of compression of profit margins, on the one hand, the carrier of capital into the financial capital transfer, on the other hand the us-led western developed countries to offshoring manufacturing, through the global distribution of manufacturing, and foreign direct investment and international trade multiple paths to expand the field of capital controls, and relying on intellectual property, technology property and technical standard grab high value-added links of the profits. The change of information technology and the dynamic evolution of division of labor and the consequent decomposition, networking and modularization of labor process have laid the material foundation for the expansion of capital movement.
 
It can be seen that the movement of capital promotes the independence and internationalization of capital form, and the constant upgrading and change of industry is realized under the impetus of labor division and technological change. Each industry becomes the main carrier in the process of capital movement. Commercial capital, industrial capital or industrial capital, financial capital and today's knowledge ownership capital respectively occupy a place along the historical development sequence and form the corresponding industrial entity.
 
Increasingly different capital form of retrieval and internationalization, it is in the condition of network economy, with the aid of "network" and the information technology to reduce the cost, the pursuit of high profits, driven by breakthrough the limitation of the geography and space, also broke the boundaries between industries and equilibrium, based on industrial gradient transfer to global expansion, the more countries and regions, and from different countries or regions labor into the capitalist market economy system, into the scope of capital movement and territory.
 
Capital experienced commercial capital, industrial capital and agricultural capital, and developed into the standard capital in network economy, namely intellectual property capital. This kind of intellectual property capital focuses more on the innovation, guidance and control of knowledge or technology, and it is a spiral regression of Marx's ownership capital of production materials. These kinds of capital forms were once dominant in different stages of human social and economic development, and financial capital and ownership capital are especially remarkable in modern times. In the era of network economy, these capital forms interweave together to form a complex and staggered value network, which is a capital network -- a combination of heterogeneous capital. The heterogeneous capital of network link is interlaced with the logistics network, financial network and other service network in the circulation field to form the current global production network. Of course, the global production network is not only the production network in the narrow sense of the production field, it is the heterogeneous capital network and the productive service industry network representing the diversification of capital.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Based on the analysis of capital movement and capital form evolution, this paper further analyzes how the heterogeneous capital network is embedded with other capital carriers and forms a global production network. As mentioned before, in the absence of foreign trade and international division of labor, different forms of capital, monetary capital, industrial capital and commercial capital, are unified in the same country to form different industries. With the expansion and deepening of domestic and international division of labor, socialization of production process and economic globalization, different forms of capital unified in the same production process have become increasingly independent and internationalized.
 
Commodity capital first realizes internationalization through the world trade, and forms the circulation capital and the logistics network serving its movement around the form of commodity capital movement. Monetary capital later by the securities investment capital into the overseas market also implements the internationalization, and based on the monetary capital formed composed of financial instruments, financial derivatives, financial capital, financial capital and movement form network, including monetary capital, loan capital and bank capital, stocks, bonds, derivatives and so on. Production capital realizes its internationalization through the large-scale growth of multinational corporation and international production. In addition, due to the division of labor, outsourcing and authorization within the manufacturing industry in developed countries, different forms of capital intersect and constitute the spatial movement network of capital, forming a hierarchical and spatial global production network.
 
Although from the form, the different capital in the form of a circular motion, but the close ties between them, each movement forms are intertwined together, such as deacon says, the cycle of capital movement can be seen as three circles, namely monetary capital, capital and commodity production capital circle circle, the three ring is connected to become unified whole. In fact, beyond these three circles, there is an invisible hand controlling the division and flow of interest flow, namely intellectual property capital or standard capital, which determines the final ownership of the profits of the other three circles.
 
As can be seen from the chart of global production network, in the current capital movement network dominated by financial capital, the production network and the service network are all nested in each other. Production network, commodity capital network and financial network are not only separated from each other, but also nested and overlapping each other. In modern times, the financial and logistics belonging to service activities are an important part of producer services and indispensable to the formation of global production networks. The production network of multinational companies is coupled with the producer services such as the financial industry and circulation industry in a nested way, and the latter is more and more dominant in the whole network, becoming the main source of added value. As a result, producer services have become an important factor influencing the strategic choice of transnational corporations and, in turn, an important factor affecting the balance of international economy and the adjustment and upgrading of industrial structures in various countries.
 
Service activities such as finance and logistics not only provide a link between production segments within a production chain, and between overlapping production chains, they also tie the production and circulation circles together. As they not only provide spatial and transactional linkages, but also integrate and coordinate independent and global production processes, service activities already play a vital role in the production chain. In the geo-economic picture, an unbalanced, highly complex and dynamic network of production networks, economic Spaces and economic locations connected by various streams.
 
Whether it is financial capital network, logistics network or production capital network, it is the network capital movement process of existing forms of original capital with the help of information technology and Internet revolution. Therefore, the global production network, as a new carrier of capital movement, is still a combination of heterogeneous capital formed by continuous circulation and mutual transformation of various capital forms based on technological network as the material basis and economic network unit as the allocation method. Based on this, this paper argues that the global production network is based on information technology, dominated by the production network of multinational companies, and the global economic division of labor network, which is the product of the globalization of capital movement. It is a heterogeneous capital network composed of diversified, independent and internationalized capital forms, which crisscross and interweave. It is a new organizational form to realize flexible accumulation of capital under the condition of network economy. It is a multi-dimensional spatial network structure with technical attributes, economic attributes and social attributes.

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