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指导英国assignment:Industrialization of Britain

论文价格: 免费 时间:2018-12-12 17:28:57 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
导读:这是一篇英国assignment范文,讨论了英国工业化。英国工业化处于世界资本主义上升时期,当时的英国以世界主要列强的角色活跃于国际舞台。英国与欧美其他国家相比,资本原始积累迅速,工业化起步早,在相当一段历史时期内处于世界贸易和世界工业的领先和垄断地位,成为包括欧美国家在内的世界各国工业品的主要供应者。因此,英国的资本主义发展和工业化进程始终处于有利的国际环境之中,在殖民地掠夺财富和占领市场,并在世界范围内赚取市场垄断利润。
 
The industrialization of Britain is in the rising period of world capitalism. At that time, Britain was active on the international stage as a major power in the world. As early as the primitive accumulation of capital in the 16th and 18th centuries, Britain's war against foreign merchants and colonial expansion created foreign markets and currency capital for it. It can be said that the original accumulation of capital in Britain is largely derived from the naked plunder of the colonies. Compared with other countries in Europe and the United States, Britain has a rapid accumulation of capital and an early start in industrialization. It has been in the leading and monopolistic position in world trade and industry for quite a period of history and has become a major supplier of industrial products to all countries in the world, including Europe and the United States. Therefore, the development of capitalism and industrialization in Britain have always been in a favorable international environment. They plunder wealth and occupy markets in colonies and earn monopoly profits in the world.
英国的工业化正处于世界资本主义的上升时期。当时,英国作为世界主要大国在国际舞台上活跃起来。早在16和18世纪资本的原始积累,英国对外国商人的战争和殖民扩张就为它创造了外国市场和货币资本。可以说,英国最初的资本积累主要来自对殖民地的赤裸裸的掠夺。与欧洲和美国的其他国家相比,英国资本迅速积累,工业化起步较早。在相当一段历史的时间里,它一直处于世界贸易和工业的领先和垄断地位,并已成为世界各国(包括欧洲和美国)的主要工业产品供应商。因此,英国资本主义和工业化的发展一直处于有利的国际环境中。他们掠夺财富,占领殖民地市场,赚取全球垄断利润。
The basis of the original accumulation of capital in Britain was the violent deprivation of farmers' land at home. Many times in British history, the enclosure movement caused many farmers to lose their land. While gradually eliminating the feudal system and small-scale peasant economy in agriculture, Britain provided sufficient labor force and domestic market for the development of its capitalist big industry. On the other hand, as mentioned above, the pirate plunder, colonial exploitation and slave trade carried out by Britain have accumulated huge wealth and capital for it, creating favorable conditions for the industrial revolution of Britain that began in the 1860s.
 
The main driving force of the industrialization of British capitalism is inside Britain. In the nearly 300 years before the industrialization of Britain, profound socio-economic changes took place. With the decline of the feudal production mode, the handicraft industry of the British workshops has made great progress and has been continuously concentrated. Because of the "three great levers", especially the "use of steam engine" and a series of technological inventions, the original production mode was promoted to change. The British industrial revolution replaced manual operation with machine operation, and the improvement of labor productivity increased the surplus value. In industrial development, small and medium-sized industries continue to go bankrupt, and large industries are increasingly concentrated in capital and production through mergers and acquisitions. The development mode of industrialization in Britain is the centralized development and industrial revolution of the handicraft industry.
 
Industrialization is actually the process of transformation from traditional agricultural society to modern industrial society. In general, in the process of industrialization in Britain, the relationship between agriculture and industry is particularly close and promotes each other. However, as industrialisation and modernisation neared completion, British agriculture, once a powerful economic lever, was ruthlessly "sacrificed". In the 1830s and 1840s, with the completion of the industrial revolution, the British capitalist economy had a great development. Britain had become the "workshop of the world". The industrial and commercial bourgeoisie rejoiced and demanded a change in state policy. As early as 1820, a London merchant groups have urged the government to "if we can make the import on the country's soil, climate, capital and industrial production the most suitable products, and from our own country is suitable for the production of goods export to pay, so foreign trade will be extremely beneficial to the country's prosperity and prosperity, get rid of the restriction of free trade, the development of maximum is the best direction of national capital and industrial." The international division of labor that advocates free trade and capitalism strongly. In order to maintain its rule, the ruling party puts the interests of the industrial and commercial bourgeoisie first. Therefore, they successively carried out the regional division of labor within the empire according to the perspective of regional comparative interests, sacrificing the agricultural sectors that were of great significance to the mainland but had higher costs and less economic benefits, and wagering on backward countries, especially colonies, which led to the gradual shrinkage of their own agriculture. "In 1801, the output value of agriculture, forestry and fishery in Britain accounted for 32.5% of the national income, compared with 22.1% in 1841. In 1861 agriculture accounted for 17.8 per cent of national income, compared with 6.4 per cent in 1901. Obviously, the proportion of agriculture in the national economy is in a straight downward trend. In the late 19th century, with the loss of Britain's "workshop of the world" status, British agriculture not only declined, but was always in trouble. In the first world war, due to the partial interruption of external transportation, the British domestic agricultural products supply was extremely scarce, and the serious consequences caused by the decline of agriculture and the serious dependence on foreign markets were exposed to the full. This forced the British government to take a series of measures to encourage the development of the country's agriculture, and achieved some results. However, after the war, the British government's efforts to improve agriculture were frustrated by the resumption of external transportation and the sharp drop in agricultural prices caused by the long-term agricultural crisis in the 1920s. After the outbreak of the second world war, the problem of food supply in Britain was unprecedented, forcing the British government to take measures again to stimulate the development of agricultural production, and tried to gradually change its unfavorable situation in agriculture and solve the problem of balance of payments from the perspective of production development, but the effect was not great. Until now, how to revitalize agriculture has been one of the thorny problems faced by successive British governments.
 
Before the advent of industrialization, Britain, like other European countries, was a typical traditional agricultural society with low productivity. Social production could only sustain people's basic needs and the total amount of social wealth was extremely limited. However, starting in the second half of the 18th century, the industrial revolution completely changed the traditional agricultural society of Britain, making it the richest and most powerful country in the world at that time. In theory, the huge increase in wealth created the possibility for every member of British society to enjoy the fruits of industrialization and live a happy life, and provided material basis for creating a better society. However, the situation in Britain was quite the opposite during the industrial revolution. Industrialization did make Britain's wealth grow rapidly. However, due to social neglect of the issue of fair distribution, most of the social wealth was monopolized by a small number of people, and most people did not share the fruits they deserved. Even some people were harmed by industrialization and their living conditions deteriorated. In Britain during the industrial revolution, the gap between the rich and the poor widened, and was more pronounced than anywhere else in the world. In 1801, 1.1 percent of the wealthiest people earned 25 percent of the national income. By 1848, the top 1.2 percent had 35 percent of national income. By 1867, when the industrial revolution was complete, the top 2 percent had amassed 40 percent of national income. By contrast, the share of national income earned by manual Labour fell from 42 per cent in 1803 to 39 per cent in 1867. The widening gap between the haves and have-nots that accompanied industrialization forced Disraeli, who later became prime minister of the United Kingdom, to exclaim: "Britain can be divided into two groups: the have-nots and the have-nots. There is a huge gap between them. The inequality of distribution causes the gap between the rich and the poor, and the gap between the rich and the poor strengthens the polarization. The persistence of this situation has had extremely serious social consequences in Britain. On the one hand, poverty will inevitably make the lower class of society, especially the working class, dissatisfied with the reality. They will express their dissatisfaction through individual crimes and collective resistance, which will lead to fierce social conflicts. , on the other hand, the polarization of the society, especially the impoverishment of the working class, make the whole countries suffer the harm, the form is Britain's national health be affected, the workers live in poverty, their living conditions are deteriorating, caused the major issues of health and health, thus reduces the national constitution on the whole. At the same time, the majority of the poor people simply cannot accept the minimum cultural education, which leads to the decline of the overall cultural quality of the British people. In the first half of the 19th century, Britain was described as "an age of rampant crime and violence" as crime rates soared.#p#分页标题#e#
 
During the period of industrialization, urban environmental problems in Britain were mainly manifested as water pollution and air pollution, both of which were obviously related to industrialization. In terms of water pollution, the discharge of industrial wastewater and domestic sewage constituted two major sources of water pollution in British cities during the industrial revolution. As is known to all, Britain's industrial revolution starts from the cotton textile industry, cotton textile industry of the whole production process requires a lot of water, plus the early industrial revolution, the water is the main mechanical power, therefore, most of Britain's first modern industrial factory building next to the river water abundant, both to nearby water solve the problem of industrial water and power, but also facilitate the increasing industrial wastewater treatment, many rivers will naturally become the discharge of industrial waste water. At that time, most cities in Britain did not have a good drainage system. The continuous natural discharge of industrial wastewater and production sewage completely exceeded the self-purification capacity of rivers and land, which inevitably led to increasingly serious water pollution. Even the Thames river, regarded by the British as the river of life, deteriorated rapidly due to the serious pollution during the industrial revolution, causing the breeding of bacteria and even the extinction of fish. It has become a world-famous "smelly river". This continued into the middle and late 20th century.
 
Look at air pollution. Soot, sulphur oxides, carbon oxides and other harmful gases emitted by coal-fuelled factories and household stoves during the industrial revolution are the main sources of air pollution in Britain. As the main fuel during the industrial revolution, coal brought great economic benefits to Britain, which also reflected the great achievements of industrialization. However, the continuous emission of various harmful substances from large coal-burning factories not only causes damage to plants, animals and buildings, but also directly or indirectly harms the health of people who often breathe polluted air. As for the ordinary people, they are suffering from air pollution. Their yards will never get sunshine, fresh air or clean rain. It is difficult to imagine people living healthily in such an environment. One of the most serious public health problems in Britain in the late 19th century was the prevalence of respiratory diseases, which was generally believed to be directly related to air pollution in Britain. The famous scholar Arnold toynby even asserted in the 1880s that the smoke of the industrial revolution did more damage than creation. However, the British government turned a blind eye to this for a long time. It was not until the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, when the consequences of environmental pollution were fully revealed, that a series of social legislation was enacted to correct the major mistakes in the industrialization period. The British model of pollution first and treatment afterwards is obviously not conducive to the sustainable and healthy development of social economy.
 
Agriculture is the foundation of national economy. From the perspective of the importance of agricultural products to human beings, agriculture is the source of food and clothing for human beings and the basis of survival. In order to survive in any society, human beings must have means of livelihood. From the relationship between agriculture and industrialization, agriculture is the basis of industrialization. The start and development of industrialization and urbanization largely depend on the development of agricultural productivity and the transfer of resources in the agricultural field. With the transfer of rural labor force to cities and towns, the proportion of agricultural population tends to decline, which supports the development of industrialization and urbanization. It has not only increased the supply of labor, but also raised the level of social consumption and changed the consumption structure of residents. Industrialization, in turn, can support and guarantee agriculture. Therefore, the development of agriculture and industrialization should be combined organically.
 
The ancients said, do not worry about poverty, balance. Social equity reflects the great progress of the socialist system, greatly respects the basic rights of human beings to survive, is conducive to mobilizing people's enthusiasm, stimulating their creativity, and promoting the continuous development of human society and science. While setting up the concept of social equity, we should take effective measures to narrow the gap between rich and poor. First, equity and efficiency should be taken into account in the primary distribution of national income. If the primary distribution gap is too large, the cost of redistribution correction will be too high. The key is to increase the proportion of household income in the distribution of national income and the proportion of labor remuneration in the distribution of primary income. Secondly, to reverse the trend of the widening gap between income distribution, we will accelerate the establishment of a sound social security system covering urban and rural areas, the establishment of a social security level and expand the coverage of normal growth mechanism, especially to accelerate realizing a complete coverage of rural endowment insurance, the public service system of urban-rural integration, gradually improve the quality and level of all kinds of public services. Finally, we will strengthen fiscal and tax regulation. We should give full play to the role of tax regulation and use tax leverage to achieve the effect of "limiting the high and subsidizing the low", such as improving the way of individual income tax collection and levying real estate tax on high-end commodity housing.
 
China's national conditions determine that China can neither repeat the old way of industrialization in Britain nor continue the traditional development model of industrialization in China. We should pay attention to ecological construction, environmental protection and rational development and effective utilization of resources, properly handle the relationship between economic development, resources and the environment, follow the path of sustainable development in industrialization, and explore new models of industrialization. First, promote the model of technological progress. To achieve the goal of nature conservation in the industrialization process, must through technological progress and technological innovation to upgrade traditional industries, promote industrial upgrading, especially to reduce the traditional metallurgy, non-ferrous metal, building materials, such as industry of resource, energy consumption and waste emissions, promote the formation of new products, new industries, promote the traditional industry in the status of the whole system of the industrial structure changes. Second, the implementation of circular economy model. First, promote economic restructuring with the concept of circular economy and coordinate the development of primary, secondary and tertiary industries. In the process of industrial structure adjustment, attention should be paid to integrating our advantageous resources to promote the adjustment and optimization of regional economic structure. To coordinate the relations among regions, cities and industries, and guide the scientific and orderly development of various industries. Second, we will promote key projects for energy conservation and emission reduction and promote cleaner production. We will encourage enterprises to minimize resource consumption from production sources, make "three wastes" emissions harmless, and maximize resource utilization, so as to create a production mode of resource conservation and comprehensive utilization.

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