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代写英国assignment:Industrialization of Britain

时间:2018-12-12 17:28来源:未知 作者:quanlei_cai 点击:
The industrialization of Britain is in the rising period of world capitalism. At that time, Britain was active on the international stage as a major power in the world. As early as the primitive accumulation of capital in the 16th and 18th centuries, Britain's war against foreign merchants and colonial expansion created foreign markets and currency capital for it. It can be said that the original accumulation of capital in Britain is largely derived from the naked plunder of the colonies. Compared with other countries in Europe and the United States, Britain has a rapid accumulation of capital and an early start in industrialization. It has been in the leading and monopolistic position in world trade and industry for quite a period of history and has become a major supplier of industrial products to all countries in the world, including Europe and the United States. Therefore, the development of capitalism and industrialization in Britain have always been in a favorable international environment. They plunder wealth and occupy markets in colonies and earn monopoly profits in the world.
The basis of the original accumulation of capital in Britain was the violent deprivation of farmers' land at home. Many times in British history, the enclosure movement caused many farmers to lose their land. While gradually eliminating the feudal system and small-scale peasant economy in agriculture, Britain provided sufficient labor force and domestic market for the development of its capitalist big industry. On the other hand, as mentioned above, the pirate plunder, colonial exploitation and slave trade carried out by Britain have accumulated huge wealth and capital for it, creating favorable conditions for the industrial revolution of Britain that began in the 1860s.
The main driving force of the industrialization of British capitalism is inside Britain. In the nearly 300 years before the industrialization of Britain, profound socio-economic changes took place. With the decline of the feudal production mode, the handicraft industry of the British workshops has made great progress and has been continuously concentrated. Because of the "three great levers", especially the "use of steam engine" and a series of technological inventions, the original production mode was promoted to change. The British industrial revolution replaced manual operation with machine operation, and the improvement of labor productivity increased the surplus value. In industrial development, small and medium-sized industries continue to go bankrupt, and large industries are increasingly concentrated in capital and production through mergers and acquisitions. The development mode of industrialization in Britain is the centralized development and industrial revolution of the handicraft industry.
Industrialization is actually the process of transformation from traditional agricultural society to modern industrial society. In general, in the process of industrialization in Britain, the relationship between agriculture and industry is particularly close and promotes each other. However, as industrialisation and modernisation neared completion, British agriculture, once a powerful economic lever, was ruthlessly "sacrificed". In the 1830s and 1840s, with the completion of the industrial revolution, the British capitalist economy had a great development. Britain had become the "workshop of the world". The industrial and commercial bourgeoisie rejoiced and demanded a change in state policy. As early as 1820, a London merchant groups have urged the government to "if we can make the import on the country's soil, climate, capital and industrial production the most suitable products, and from our own country is suitable for the production of goods export to pay, so foreign trade will be extremely beneficial to the country's prosperity and prosperity, get rid of the restriction of free trade, the development of maximum is the best direction of national capital and industrial." The international division of labor that advocates free trade and capitalism strongly. In order to maintain its rule, the ruling party puts the interests of the industrial and commercial bourgeoisie first. Therefore, they successively carried out the regional division of labor within the empire according to the perspective of regional comparative interests, sacrificing the agricultural sectors that were of great significance to the mainland but had higher costs and less economic benefits, and wagering on backward countries, especially colonies, which led to the gradual shrinkage of their own agriculture. "In 1801, the output value of agriculture, forestry and fishery in Britain accounted for 32.5% of the national income, compared with 22.1% in 1841. In 1861 agriculture accounted for 17.8 per cent of national income, compared with 6.4 per cent in 1901. Obviously, the proportion of agriculture in the national economy is in a straight downward trend. In the late 19th century, with the loss of Britain's "workshop of the world" status, British agriculture not only declined, but was always in trouble. In the first world war, due to the partial interruption of external transportation, the British domestic agricultural products supply was extremely scarce, and the serious consequences caused by the decline of agriculture and the serious dependence on foreign markets were exposed to the full. This forced the British government to take a series of measures to encourage the development of the country's agriculture, and achieved some results. However, after the war, the British government's efforts to improve agriculture were frustrated by the resumption of external transportation and the sharp drop in agricultural prices caused by the long-term agricultural crisis in the 1920s. After the outbreak of the second world war, the problem of food supply in Britain was unprecedented, forcing the British government to take measures again to stimulate the development of agricultural production, and tried to gradually change its unfavorable situation in agriculture and solve the problem of balance of payments from the perspective of production development, but the effect was not great. Until now, how to revitalize agriculture has been one of the thorny problems faced by successive British governments.
Before the advent of industrialization, Britain, like other European countries, was a typical traditional agricultural society with low productivity. Social production could only sustain people's basic needs and the total amount of social wealth was extremely limited. However, starting in the second half of the 18th century, the industrial revolution completely changed the traditional agricultural society of Britain, making it the richest and most powerful country in the world at that time. In theory, the huge increase in wealth created the possibility for every member of British society to enjoy the fruits of industrialization and live a happy life, and provided material basis for creating a better society. However, the situation in Britain was quite the opposite during the industrial revolution. Industrialization did make Britain's wealth grow rapidly. However, due to social neglect of the issue of fair distribution, most of the social wealth was monopolized by a small number of people, and most people did not share the fruits they deserved. Even some people were harmed by industrialization and their living conditions deteriorated. In Britain during the industrial revolution, the gap between the rich and the poor widened, and was more pronounced than anywhere else in the world. In 1801, 1.1 percent of the wealthiest people earned 25 percent of the national income. By 1848, the top 1.2 percent had 35 percent of national income. By 1867, when the industrial revolution was complete, the top 2 percent had amassed 40 percent of national income. By contrast, the share of national income earned by manual Labour fell from 42 per cent in 1803 to 39 per cent in 1867. The widening gap between the haves and have-nots that accompanied industrialization forced Disraeli, who later became prime minister of the United Kingdom, to exclaim: "Britain can be divided into two groups: the have-nots and the have-nots. There is a huge gap between them. The inequality of distribution causes the gap between the rich and the poor, and the gap between the rich and the poor strengthens the polarization. The persistence of this situation has had extremely serious social consequences in Britain. On the one hand, poverty will inevitably make the lower class of society, especially the working class, dissatisfied with the reality. They will express their dissatisfaction through individual crimes and collective resistance, which will lead to fierce social conflicts. , on the other hand, the polarization of the society, especially the impoverishment of the working class, make the whole countries suffer the harm, the form is Britain's national health be affected, the workers live in poverty, their living conditions are deteriorating, caused the major issues of health and health, thus reduces the national constitution on the whole. At the same time, the majority of the poor people simply cannot accept the minimum cultural education, which leads to the decline of the overall cultural quality of the British people. In the first half of the 19th century, Britain was described as "an age of rampant crime and violence" as crime rates soared.

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