代写 TAG标签
网站地图
澳洲代写assignment代写英国assignment Assignment格式 如何写assignment
返回首页

英国assignment代写:铁路系统工程与集成Railway Systems Engineering and Inte

时间:2019-05-13 15:28来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
Executive Summary执行摘要
现代铁路滚轴被誉为“工程的胜利”。在英国,反式设计和乘客友好的风格相结合,为游客提供了一个既舒适又愉快的旅程。毫无疑问,由于直接照明、明亮的色彩和现代性以及先进的技术,新列车是首选的,这些技术为乘客提供了优越的旅行体验。然而,这些便利设施的价格是增加了重量,或者,对于有技术头脑的读者来说,是每名乘客的空间。根据英国医学杂志发表的报告指出,英国超重或肥胖人口的数量从1999年的43%上升到2007年的53%。事实上,英国铁路网使用的滚压钢管也是如此。
本文对超高比质量引起的基础问题、运行和技术原因以及安全问题进行了研究,更重要的是,介绍了降低比质量的潜在方法,以及每种方法的估计重量节省。E升级材料,改进形状设计和拆除不必要的行李。
Modern railway rollingstock is acclaimed as a ‘triumph of engineering'.In Britain,a combination offantastic design and passenger-friendly styleprovidespassengerswith acleanandpleasantjourney. There is no doubt thatnew trains are preferred, in virtue of theindirect lighting,brightcoloursand modernamenities, as well asadvancedtechnologies,which provide a superior travelexperience for the passengers.However, these amenitiescome at a price,which isthe increased weight,or, fortechnically minded readers, massper passenger space.According to reports publishedin theBritish MedicalJournal, the number of overweight orobese people inthe UK has risen from 43% in 1999 to 53% in2007.Indeed, it is the same case for the rollingstock usedfor the British railway network.
In this article, a study ofthefundamental issuesabout the increasing specificmass,the operational and technical reasons behind, and safety issues resulted from the over-highspecificmass is presented.More importantly, potential methods toreduce the specificmass are described, together with estimatedweight saving for each method.These methods include upgrading of materials, improved shape design and removal of unnecessary luggage.
  
I.Introduction 引言
本文研究了超高质量引起的基本问题,包括比质量增加、运行和技术原因以及安全问题。更重要的是,描述了降低特定质量的潜在方法,以及每种方法的估计重量节省。
In this article, a study of thefundamental issues about the increasing specificmass,the operational and technical reasons behind, and safety issues resulted from the over-highspecificmass is presented. More importantly, potential methods toreduce the specificmass are described, together with estimated weight saving for each method.
1.1Assignment brief 转让简介
现代铁路滚轴被誉为“工程的胜利”。在英国,将奇妙的设计和乘客友好的风格相结合,为乘客提供了一个愉快的旅程。毫无疑问,由于直接照明、明亮色彩和现代化,以及先进的技术,新列车是首选,这些技术为乘客提供了优越的旅行体验。然而,这些设施是以增加重量为代价的,或以技术为目的的读者,以乘客空间为质量单位的。
Modern railway rollingstock is acclaimed as a 'triumph of engineering'.In Britain, a combination of fantastic design and passenger-friendly styleprovides passengerswith acleanandpleasant journey. There is no doubt  that new trains are preferred, in virtue of theindirect lighting,brightcoloursand modernamenities, as well as advancedtechnologies, which provide a superior travelexperience for the passengers. However, these amenitiescome at a price,which isthe increased weight,or, fortechnically minded readers, massper passenger space.
1.2Methodology 方法学
本文研究了超高质量引起的基本问题,包括比质量增加、运行和技术原因以及安全问题。更重要的是,描述了降低特定质量的潜在方法,以及每种方法的估计重量节省。
In this article, a study of thefundamental issues about the increasing specificmass,the operational and technical reasons behind, and safety issues resulted from the over-highspecificmass is presented. More importantly, potential methods toreduce the specificmass are described, together with estimated weight saving for each method.
1.3Scope
This article focuseson therolling stocksof modern railway in Britain. In order tofind outthe weightsaving that may beaccomplished;we considered potential methods for thereduction of the specificmassforseveraltypes of train.
1.4Assignment structure
The first sectionpresents a brief introduction on this assignment, followed bya description of the background of the modern railway rolling stock andspecific massofdifferent traintypes in the second section. Inthe third section,reduction of thespecific mass is discussedbased onsimulations by the DetailRailVampire. Finally,aseries ofmethods to reducethe specific mass and estimate the amount of weight saved. These methods include upgrading of materials, improved shape design and removal of unnecessary luggage.
II. Background
In virtue of the Industrial Revolution, The Great Britain owns the oldest railway system in the world.In 1825, the first ever locomotive-hauled public railway opened in UK.Since then, the railway network in theGreat Britain has increased rapidly. Indeed, the United Kingdom is one of the founding members of the International Union of Railways (UIC).Till 2014, a network consisting of 15,753 kilometres (9,788 mi) standard-gauge lines and 5,268 kilometres (3,273 mi) electrifiedlines has been achieved(Nash, 2002). These lines range from single to double to quadruple track. Moreover, some cities have separate rail-based mass transit systems,such as the extensive and historic London Underground. Most of the railway track is managed by Network Rail. The UK railway network is the 18th largest in the world.In spite of lines that have being closed in the 20th century,the UK railway network remains one of the densest rail networks. It is one of the busiest railways in Europe, with a passenger flow20 % more than the French Rail, which is the second busiest one in Europe. Indeed, the passenger flowof British railwayis even higher than that of Spain, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Portugal and Norway combined(Gutierrez et al., 1996).
Over the past decade, rail travel in the United Kingdom has enjoyed a significant renaissance with kilometres/miles travelled matching and surpassing the maximum of the 1940s (see Figure 1 below). This can be attributed to a shift away from private motoring(due to growing road congestion and increasing petrol prices) and the rapidly increasingcost of alltravelling modes(Haubrich, 2001).
(a) (b)
Figure 1 (a) Current mainline railway lines in the United Kingdom; (b) Rail passenger numbers in Great Britain, 1830–2012 (millions)
Additionally, the British railway has established links to various Europe countries, including France, Belgium, Germany, Netherlands and North Ireland.Since 1994, the British railway network has been connected with that of the continental Europe by an undersea rail link called the Channel Tunnel(Givoni and Rietveld, 2007).
In spite of the long history, theBritish railway is facing several severe issues, including over-loading, ineffective management and upgrading of rolling stock. Among these problems, upgrading of rolling stock is one of the most urgent issues due to the rapidly increasing mass per passenger space(Gibson et al., 2002).
Rolling stock is defined as self-propelled (such as trucks and trains) or pulled (such as trailers and coaches) transportationequipment that moves on wheels.Previously, rolling stock referred to the vehiclesthat moveon a railway. Nowadays, this concept has expanded to include the wheeled vehicles used by businesses on roadways(Ivory and Alderman, 2005).Generally, rollingstock includesbothpoweredandunpoweredvehicles, including locomotives,railroadcars,coaches, and wagons(Wilson and Norris, 2005, Knaap et al., 2001). However, in some countries(including theUnited Kingdom),this termreferstounpoweredvehiclesonly,specifically excluding locomotives(Grantham, 2001)which is referredas running stock, tractionor motive power(Geyer and Davies, 2000).
Figure 2A variety of rolling stock in railway yard
In Great Britain, different types of rolling stock were given specific code names, often after animalscommonly known in UK. These codes were telegraphese, somewhat analogous to the SMS languagenowadays.DocklandsLight Railwayrollingstockrefers to the passenger trains and service vehiclesused on the Docklands Light Railway (DLR),which serves the LondonDocklands area (located in the eastofLondon).The passengerstockconsistsofhigh-floor,bi-directional andsingle-articulated EMUs. The trains are formed from sets of 2or3semi-permanently connected cars, theincrease to 3-car trains being introduced progressively on the busiest routesin2010, followed by substantial platform extension works. The upgraded trains arefully automated andrequire nodriver.Instead, a Passenger Service Agent (PSA) titled the "Train Captain" in thesystem's earlier yearsis in attendance in each train and can take control at a driver'sconsole in cases of emergences(Hull, 2005).Consisting of 149 cars, DLR rolling stock had three different types, but only two of them (the B90/B92/B2K fleet and the B07 fleet) are in operation.Figure 3 shows a B07 stock train, which was introduced in 2005 and is one of the trains equipped with PSA system.


推荐内容
  • 英国作业
  • 美国作业
  • 加拿大作业
  • 英国essay
  • 澳洲essay
  • 美国essay
  • 加拿大essay
  • MBA Essay
  • Essay格式范文
  • 澳洲代写assignment
  • 代写英国assignment
  • Assignment格式
  • 如何写assignment
  • case study
  • literature review
  • Research Proposal
  • Summary范文
  • Reference格式
  • presentation
  • report格式
  • PEST分析法
  • Admission Essay
  • Personal Statement
  • Motivation Letter
  • Application Letter
  • recommendation letter