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英国管理学assignment:Critically evaluate the view that employee p

时间:2019-07-19 11:32来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
Introduction介绍
 
绩效管理是企业员工的绩效评价,是针对每个员工的岗位职责,已成为企业战略方针和人力资源活动的重要组成部分。绩效管理的内涵比绩效考核、绩效考核等人力资源管理战略更为广泛,被称为绩效管理(Fletcher,2001)。绩效管理运用各种科学的定性和定量方法,对员工行为的实际效果及其对企业的贡献和评价进行评估和评价。它是企业个人管理的重要内容,也是企业管理的有力手段。绩效管理的目的是通过评价提高每个人的效率,最终达到企业的目标。
然而,在2009年苏格兰工会大会(STUC)年会上,有人建议绩效管理经常被错误地使用。它迫使工人提高产量,降低工资,为表现不佳的工人制定配额,并管理这些工人失业。在他们的版本中,绩效管理已经成为一种特别残忍的方法,迫使员工对企业强加的标准做出反应。正如Taylor(2013)在报告中所言,绩效管理现在是一种“新的工作场所专制”。泰勒的声明和其他类似的观点引发了争议。本文将对绩效管理进行批判性的探讨,并提出自己的看法。
Performance management refers to performance evaluation of employees in enterprises, which is aiming at job responsibilities of every employee and has become a strategic approach and an important part of business policies and HR activities. The connotation of performance management is wider than performance appraisal, performance appraisal and other human resource management strategies are known as performance management (Fletcher, 2001). Using all kinds of scientific qualitative and quantitative methods, performance management assesses and evaluates the practical effect of behaviors of employees and their contributions and valuations to the enterprises. It is an important content of personal management of enterprises, it is also a powerful method of enterprises’ management. The aim of performance management is to improve the efficiency of each individual through evaluation, eventually achieving the goal of enterprises. 
However, in 2009 in the Scottish Trades Union Congress (STUC) Annual Conference, it was suggested that performance management often being used in a incorrect way. It forces workers to produce more, drives down salaries and creates quotas for workers who did not perform well, and manages these workers out of their jobs. In their version, performance management has already become a particularly brutal method, which compels workers to react to standards imposed by enterprises. Just as Taylor (2013) suggested in his report, performance management was now a “new workplace tyranny”. Taylor’s statement and other similar opinions triggered controversies. In this essay, it is going to discuss the performance management critically and puts forward our own opinions. 
 
1. Performance management is not a “new workplace tyranny”绩效管理不是“新工作场所的专制”
2006年,一篇题为“绩效管理”的作品摧毁了索尼?!索尼公司前执行董事写的这篇文章让商业界大吃一惊。这一观点的支持者太多了,而抗议者也对绩效管理持怀疑态度(Biron等,2011年)。索尼前执行董事认为,索尼的垮台是由于引入了员工绩效管理。许多学者持有这种观点。泰勒教授在2013年进行了一项实证研究,然后为苏格兰工会大会发表了一份报告。在本报告中,泰勒通过大量来自一线的证据,探讨了绩效管理对员工的负面影响。Hartog等(2004)在他们的实证研究中也提出,在许多领域,企业承认,通过实施绩效管理体系来提高产出是一项艰巨而复杂的任务。John Godard(2004)进行了一项研究,以评估高绩效系统对雇主、员工和组织成果的影响。研究结果表明,不同于长期以来所相信的,优越的性能结果可能是不必要的。即使绩效管理的有效性也引起了争议,本文仍然认为绩效管理不是一种新的工作场所专制。具体意见如下。
In 2006, a piece of work titled Performance management destroyed Sony? ! that wrote by a former executive director of Sony Corporation had astonished the commercial world. There were so many supporters of this opinion, while the protesters were also doubt about performance management (Biron, etc., 2011). The former executive director of Sony believed that Sony's fall was due to the introduction of employee performance management. Many scholars hold this kind of view. Professor Taylor conducted an empirical study in 2013, and then published a report for the Scottish Trades Union Congress. In this report, through a lot of evidences from the front-line, Taylor discussed the negative impact of performance management on employees. Hartog etc. (2004) also suggested in their empirical research, in many areas enterprises admitted that, by implementing performance management systems to improve their output was an arduous and complicated task. John Godard (2004) made a research to assess the effects of high-performance systems on employer, employee and organization outcomes. Research results showed that, different with what has long been believed, superior performance outcomes may not be warranted. Even the effectiveness of performance management evokes disputes, in this essay, the author still believes that performance management is not a new workplace tyranny. Opinions shall be discussed in details in the following. 
1.1 Performance management and employees’ passion
Sony corporation’s former executive director thought that performance management led to the disappearance of the passion of employees, particularly that of technical developers. The technical developers want to achieve the success of technology development through their own efforts, this is a kind of intrinsic motivation; in contrast, the return comes from outside, such as money, appreciation or famous is extrinsic motivation. If the external motivation is strengthened, the intrinsic motivation will be weakened. That is to say, if employees only believe hard working will increase their pay, then the inner consciousness that taking work as fun will be suppressed. Without a genuine passion, technical developer cannot be a "techno-geek". 
Employees passion disappeared means there are problems of the direction of performance management (Peters & Austin, 1983). That is to say, the direction of performance management of Sony attached importance to external incentives such as salary and promotion, and did not introduce guidance into the inner world. It was not an issue of performance management itself, just Sony had not make a right performance direction for employees, particularly for the technicians. For instance, to assume a more challenging research task can be a motivation of research and development technicians. 
1.2 Performance management and challenging spirit
Many researches have similar conclusions that performance management may lead to the disappearance of challenging spirit, because employees are apt to complete tasks which are easier to meet performance management requirements (Taylor, 2013; McKenna etc., 2011; Beardwell and Thompson, 2014; Carter etc., 2011; Prowse, etc., 2009). After introducing performance management, many employees put forward the low target which is easy to achieve, and the whole company focuses on pursuing of immediate interests, so that it is difficult to see the benefits of working in short term, for example the contempt of product quality inspection and working procedure about “aging treatment”. In fact, for every enterprise, some solid and meticulous work are easy to be ignored as long as the performance management being implemented. The operation department takes each other out and tries to get more profits from the enterprises’ overall interests.
Spirit of challenging disappeared means there are problems of the performance target setting. Performance targets can be divided into two kinds, one is tasks that must be completed. This kind of task is unconverted, if it cannot be made, employees must bear penalty. The other kind is challenging task. The main effect of this kind task is to encourage employees, once completion employees can get extra reward, such as extra bonuses, honor motivation, or a better learning opportunity. That is to say, for work which cannot take effect in a short term, it would better be identified by importance, rather than by short-term benefits. In addition, there are short-term and long-term differences between the targets, and how to choose the short and long term targets, it depends on the strategy and the communications between senior management and the subordinates.
 
1.3 Performance management and team work spirit
Sony’s former executive director also thought that performance management led to the disappearance of the spirit of team work. The performance management attempts to quantify people's ability so as to make an objective and fair evaluation. The biggest drawback of this approach is that it ruins the atmosphere in the enterprise. The boss does not treat his subordinates as emotional people, he regards the indicator as the most important thing and examines the subordinates in the "eyes of evaluation". For the employees of enterprise, the necessary warmth and trust exists no longer. The spirit of team work disappeared is talking about the problem of performance communication and evaluation (Broek etc., 2004; Legge, 1995). Performance evaluation makes senior management and their subordinates stand on the opposite; the lack of mutual trust between them is one of the pitfalls of the performance management. 
From reasons listed above, it seems performance management do have some drawbacks. No wonder Taylor and other supporters suggested that performance management was a “new workplace tyranny”. However, after analyses we can find that performance management is just a method, or a tool to manage employees. Even the former executive director of Sony revealed many "bad consequences" the performance management causes, but is it the problem of performance management itself, or is it not used well? In the viewpoint of this essay, performance management is a tool, but many organizations did not use the this tool well, it is not the problem of performance management itself. Performance management may have some drawbacks along with the economic and social development, it is never a “new workplace tyranny”, just the way to use this tool is not proper.  


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